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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A homozygous mutation in the endothelin-3 gene associated with a combined Waardenburg type 2 and Hirschsprung phenotype (Shah-Waardenburg syndrome).

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) or colonic aganglionosis is a congenital disorder characterized by an absence of intramural ganglia along variable lengths of the colon resulting in intestinal obstruction. The incidence of HSCR is 1 in 5,000 live births. Mutations in the RET gene, which codes for a receptor tyrosine kinase, and in EDNRB which codes for the endothelin-B receptor, have been shown to be associated with HSCR in humans. The lethal-spotted mouse which has pigment abnormalities, but also colonic aganglionosis, carries a mutation in the gene coding for endothelin 3 ( Edn3), the ligand for the receptor protein encoded by EDNRB. Here, we describe a mutation of the human gene for endothelin 3 (EDN3), homozygously present in a patient with a combined Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) and HSCR phenotype (Shah-Waardenburg syndrome). The mutation, Cys159Phe, in exon 3 in the ET-3 like domain of EDN3, presumably affects the proteolytic processing of the preproendothelin to the mature peptide EDN3. The patient's parents were first cousins. A previous child in this family had been diagnosed with a similar combination of HSCR, depigmentation and deafness. Depigmentation and deafness were present in other relatives. Moreover, we present a further indication for the involvement of EDNRB in HSCR by reporting a novel mutation detected in one of 40 unselected HSCR patients.[1]


  1. A homozygous mutation in the endothelin-3 gene associated with a combined Waardenburg type 2 and Hirschsprung phenotype (Shah-Waardenburg syndrome). Hofstra, R.M., Osinga, J., Tan-Sindhunata, G., Wu, Y., Kamsteeg, E.J., Stulp, R.P., van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C., Majoor-Krakauer, D., Angrist, M., Chakravarti, A., Meijers, C., Buys, C.H. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
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