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Applicability of Iceland spar as a stone model standard for lithotripsy devices.

The identification of a universal stone model standard would enable reproducible fragmentation data useful for the design, evaluation, and comparison of various lithotripsy devices. The clinical benefits of such a stone model include the elucidation of setting parameters that would optimize fragmentation strategies. Iceland spar is a pure form of calcite (CaCO3) that was subjected to experimental disintegration by electrohydraulic lithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Iceland spar was fragmented with both lithotripsy methods in a reproducible fashion. The degree of fragmentation was directly related to alterations in either power or shock frequency. Iceland spar is radiopaque, inexpensive, easily obtained, homogenous in composition, and sizable. Iceland spar meets a variety of stone model criteria, warranting its continued investigation as a potential stone model standard.[1]


  1. Applicability of Iceland spar as a stone model standard for lithotripsy devices. Blitz, B.F., Lyon, E.S., Gerber, G.S. J. Endourol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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