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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Associated psychopathology in children with both ADHD and chronic tic disorder.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between severity of tic disorder and comorbid psychopathology in 47 prepubertal children with tic disorder who were referred for clinical evaluation of and treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional behaviors, and aggressive behaviors. METHOD: Parents and teachers completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) for each child. RESULTS: Seventy-five percent of the sample was in the clinical range in at least two categories of psychopathology. When the children were divided into two groups on the basis of tic severity, significantly higher scores were obtained for children with more severe tics on the narrow-band Depressed, Uncommunicative, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Aggressive scales, and the broad-band internalizing scale of the CBCL. The severity groups did not differ on TRF scores. Children who were more aggressive also received higher CBCL scores. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study suggest that the severity of chronic tics is a clinical indicator of complex psychopathology in children with ADHD who are referred for psychiatric evaluation.[1]


  1. Associated psychopathology in children with both ADHD and chronic tic disorder. Nolan, E.E., Sverd, J., Gadow, K.D., Sprafkin, J., Ezor, S.N. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1996) [Pubmed]
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