The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characteristics of normal corneal topography using the EyeSys corneal analysis system.

PURPOSE: To study the parameters of corneal topography of normal eyes using the Corneal Analysis System ( CAS, EyeSys Technologies) to determine the types and frequency of patterns and parameters. SETTING: University of Illinois Eye Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA. METHODS: Three independent, masked judges, using a forced-choice paradigm, classified corneal topography patterns into six categories on one randomly selected, normal eye of 100 persons who did not wear contact lenses. The patterns were defined by using the midpoint dioptric bin and a 0.50 diopter (D) steeper bin. Results: The pattern frequency using the mid-dioptric bin was teardrop (6%), amorphous (11%), round (11%), symmetric bow tie (17%), asymmetric bow tie (1 %), kidney (22%), and oval (32%). Mean refractive and keratometric cylinders, respectively, were teardrop (0.13 and 0.15 D), amorphous (0.15 and 0.49 D), round (0.18 and 0.56 D), oval (0.21 and 0.56 D), kidney (0.51 and 0.72 D), and bow tie (1.18 and 1.82 D). Pattern frequency using the 0.50 D steeper bin was round (2%), oval (5%), teardrop (6%), kidney (15%), amorphous (17%), asymmetric bow tie (17%), and symmetric bow tie (37%). Mean refractive and keratometric cylinders, respectively, were round (0.13 and 0.32 D), amorphous (0.25 and 0.38 D), kidney (0.11 and 0.42 D), oval (0.40 and 0.59 D), teardrop (0.08 and 0.75 D), and bow tie (0.65 and 1.09 D). Mean flat and steep contours were 41.76 D (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.68 to 44.84 D) and 44.15 D (95% CI, 41.00 to 47.31 D), respectively. Mean contour range was 2.40 D (95% CI, 0.61 to 4.17 D). CONCLUSION: The data suggest that for 95% of normal corneas, corneal contours will be steeper than 38.50 D, flatter than 47.50 D, and have a contour range less than 4.25 D when using the EyeSys CAS.[1]


  1. Characteristics of normal corneal topography using the EyeSys corneal analysis system. Alvi, N.P., McMahon, T.T., Devulapally, J., Chen, T.C., Vianna, M.A. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (1997) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities