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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Confidence Intervals

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Disease relevance of Confidence Intervals


Psychiatry related information on Confidence Intervals


High impact information on Confidence Intervals

  • The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the risk of relapse at the end of the study was 34 percent for the risperidone group and 60 percent for the haloperidol group (P<0.001); the risk ratio for relapse with haloperidol, from the Cox model, was 1.93 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.33 to 2.80; P<0.001) [11].
  • RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 2.8 years, there were 99 strokes or deaths among the women in the estradiol group, and 93 among those in the placebo group (relative risk in the estradiol group, 1.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.4) [12].
  • The fondaparinux group had a significantly lower incidence of venous thromboembolism by day 11 (12.5 percent [45 of 361 patients]) than the enoxaparin group (27.8 percent [101 of 363 patients]; reduction in risk, 55.2 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 36.2 to 70.2; P<0.001) [13].
  • The primary end point of death or recurrent ischemic stroke was reached by 196 of 1103 patients assigned to warfarin (17.8 percent) and 176 of 1103 assigned to aspirin (16.0 percent; P=0.25; hazard ratio comparing warfarin with aspirin, 1.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.92 to 1.38) [14].
  • Among users of other NSAIDs, the probability of recurrent bleeding was 18.8 percent for patients receiving eradication therapy and 4.4 percent for those treated with omeprazole (absolute difference, 14.4 percent; 95 percent confidence interval for the difference, 4.4 to 24.4 percent; P=0.005) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Confidence Intervals


Biological context of Confidence Intervals


Anatomical context of Confidence Intervals


Associations of Confidence Intervals with chemical compounds

  • The difference in the change in LDL cholesterol concentration between the two groups was -21 mg per deciliter (95 percent confidence interval, -14 to -29; P < 0.001) [30].
  • One third of the mean blood glucose concentration fell outside the confidence intervals physicians used to bound their estimates [31].
  • At age six, 2 of 17 controls had a serum creatinine level less than 1.0 mg per deciliter, as compared with 17 of 27 patients treated with cysteamine for at least one year (odds ratio, 12.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 33.9) [32].
  • The risk of advanced-stage carcinoma was fourfold for estrogen users, but rhe confidence interval was wide, and this question requires further study [33].
  • Major bleeding occurred in four patients assigned to standard heparin (2.0 percent) and one patient assigned to low-molecular-weight heparin (0.5 percent; difference, 1.5 percentage points; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.7 to 2.7) [34].

Gene context of Confidence Intervals


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Confidence Intervals


  1. Lactation and a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Newcomb, P.A., Storer, B.E., Longnecker, M.P., Mittendorf, R., Greenberg, E.R., Clapp, R.W., Burke, K.P., Willett, W.C., MacMahon, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. Haffner, S.M., Lehto, S., Rönnemaa, T., Pyörälä, K., Laakso, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Helsinki Heart Study: primary-prevention trial with gemfibrozil in middle-aged men with dyslipidemia. Safety of treatment, changes in risk factors, and incidence of coronary heart disease. Frick, M.H., Elo, O., Haapa, K., Heinonen, O.P., Heinsalmi, P., Helo, P., Huttunen, J.K., Kaitaniemi, P., Koskinen, P., Manninen, V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. A controlled trial of nonoxynol 9 film to reduce male-to-female transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Roddy, R.E., Zekeng, L., Ryan, K.A., Tamoufé, U., Weir, S.S., Wong, E.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Risk of localized and widespread endometrial cancer in relation to recent and discontinued use of conjugated estrogens. Shapiro, S., Kelly, J.P., Rosenberg, L., Kaufman, D.W., Helmrich, S.P., Rosenshein, N.B., Lewis, J.L., Knapp, R.C., Stolley, P.D., Schottenfeld, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. A worldwide study of the Huntington's disease mutation. The sensitivity and specificity of measuring CAG repeats. Kremer, B., Goldberg, P., Andrew, S.E., Theilmann, J., Telenius, H., Zeisler, J., Squitieri, F., Lin, B., Bassett, A., Almqvist, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Mortality at 1 year with combination platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition and reduced-dose fibrinolytic therapy vs conventional fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: GUSTO V randomized trial. Lincoff, A.M., Califf, R.M., Van de Werf, F., Willerson, J.T., White, H.D., Armstrong, P.W., Guetta, V., Gibler, W.B., Hochman, J.S., Bode, C., Vahanian, A., Steg, P.G., Ardissino, D., Savonitto, S., Bar, F., Sadowski, Z., Betriu, A., Booth, J.E., Wolski, K., Waller, M., Topol, E.J. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Do statins reduce risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer disease? The Cache County Study. Zandi, P.P., Sparks, D.L., Khachaturian, A.S., Tschanz, J., Norton, M., Steinberg, M., Welsh-Bohmer, K.A., Breitner, J.C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in an era of effective prophylaxis: the relative contribution of non-adherence and drug failure. Lundberg, B.E., Davidson, A.J., Burman, W.J. AIDS (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. HDL cholesterol subfractions and risk of developing type 2 diabetes among Pima Indians. Fagot-Campagna, A., Knowler, W.C., Narayan, K.M., Hanson, R.L., Saaddine, J., Howard, B.V. Diabetes Care (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. A comparison of risperidone and haloperidol for the prevention of relapse in patients with schizophrenia. Csernansky, J.G., Mahmoud, R., Brenner, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. A clinical trial of estrogen-replacement therapy after ischemic stroke. Viscoli, C.M., Brass, L.M., Kernan, W.N., Sarrel, P.M., Suissa, S., Horwitz, R.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Fondaparinux compared with enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after elective major knee surgery. Bauer, K.A., Eriksson, B.I., Lassen, M.R., Turpie, A.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. A comparison of warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke. Mohr, J.P., Thompson, J.L., Lazar, R.M., Levin, B., Sacco, R.L., Furie, K.L., Kistler, J.P., Albers, G.W., Pettigrew, L.C., Adams, H.P., Jackson, C.M., Pullicino, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Preventing recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection who are taking low-dose aspirin or naproxen. Chan, F.K., Chung, S.C., Suen, B.Y., Lee, Y.T., Leung, W.K., Leung, V.K., Wu, J.C., Lau, J.Y., Hui, Y., Lai, M.S., Chan, H.L., Sung, J.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of warfarin on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction. Smith, P., Arnesen, H., Holme, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. The absence of a relation between the periconceptional use of vitamins and neural-tube defects. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neural Tube Defects Study Group. Mills, J.L., Rhoads, G.G., Simpson, J.L., Cunningham, G.C., Conley, M.R., Lassman, M.R., Walden, M.E., Depp, O.R., Hoffman, H.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Powderly, W.G., Finkelstein, D., Feinberg, J., Frame, P., He, W., van der Horst, C., Koletar, S.L., Eyster, M.E., Carey, J., Waskin, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ lymphocyte counts and the risk of progression to AIDS. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on AIDS. O'Brien, W.A., Hartigan, P.M., Martin, D., Esinhart, J., Hill, A., Benoit, S., Rubin, M., Simberkoff, M.S., Hamilton, J.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. Stampfer, M.J., Hennekens, C.H., Manson, J.E., Colditz, G.A., Rosner, B., Willett, W.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Preserved endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with essential hypertension. Cockcroft, J.R., Chowienczyk, P.J., Benjamin, N., Ritter, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Cardiovascular effects of sildenafil during exercise in men with known or probable coronary artery disease: a randomized crossover trial. Arruda-Olson, A.M., Mahoney, D.W., Nehra, A., Leckel, M., Pellikka, P.A. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Acupuncture for the treatment of cocaine addiction: a randomized controlled trial. Margolin, A., Kleber, H.D., Avants, S.K., Konefal, J., Gawin, F., Stark, E., Sorensen, J., Midkiff, E., Wells, E., Jackson, T.R., Bullock, M., Culliton, P.D., Boles, S., Vaughan, R. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Impact of folic acid fortification of the US food supply on the occurrence of neural tube defects. Honein, M.A., Paulozzi, L.J., Mathews, T.J., Erickson, J.D., Wong, L.Y. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparison of amphotericin B with fluconazole in the treatment of acute AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Saag, M.S., Powderly, W.G., Cloud, G.A., Robinson, P., Grieco, M.H., Sharkey, P.K., Thompson, S.E., Sugar, A.M., Tuazon, C.U., Fisher, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Contribution of BRCA1 mutations to ovarian cancer. Stratton, J.F., Gayther, S.A., Russell, P., Dearden, J., Gore, M., Blake, P., Easton, D., Ponder, B.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. The prevalence of cardiac valvular insufficiency assessed by transthoracic echocardiography in obese patients treated with appetite-suppressant drugs. Khan, M.A., Herzog, C.A., St Peter, J.V., Hartley, G.G., Madlon-Kay, R., Dick, C.D., Asinger, R.W., Vessey, J.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Risk for perinatal HIV-1 transmission according to maternal immunologic, virologic, and placental factors. St Louis, M.E., Kamenga, M., Brown, C., Nelson, A.M., Manzila, T., Batter, V., Behets, F., Kabagabo, U., Ryder, R.W., Oxtoby, M. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Cancer Incidence in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Thompson, D., Easton, D.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Reduction of serum cholesterol with sitostanol-ester margarine in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. Miettinen, T.A., Puska, P., Gylling, H., Vanhanen, H., Vartiainen, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. The clinical information value of the glycosylated hemoglobin assay. Nathan, D.M., Singer, D.E., Hurxthal, K., Goodson, J.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Cysteamine therapy for children with nephropathic cystinosis. Gahl, W.A., Reed, G.F., Thoene, J.G., Schulman, J.D., Rizzo, W.B., Jonas, A.J., Denman, D.W., Schlesselman, J.J., Corden, B.J., Schneider, J.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Endometrial cancer and estrogen use. Report of a large case-control study. Antunes, C.M., Strolley, P.D., Rosenshein, N.B., Davies, J.L., Tonascia, J.A., Brown, C., Burnett, L., Rutledge, A., Pokempner, M., Garcia, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  34. Treatment of venous thrombosis with intravenous unfractionated heparin administered in the hospital as compared with subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin administered at home. The Tasman Study Group. Koopman, M.M., Prandoni, P., Piovella, F., Ockelford, P.A., Brandjes, D.P., van der Meer, J., Gallus, A.S., Simonneau, G., Chesterman, C.H., Prins, M.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. CDKN2A mutations in multiple primary melanomas. Monzon, J., Liu, L., Brill, H., Goldstein, A.M., Tucker, M.A., From, L., McLaughlin, J., Hogg, D., Lassam, N.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of the gene for multidrug-resistance-associated protein and outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. Norris, M.D., Bordow, S.B., Marshall, G.M., Haber, P.S., Cohn, S.L., Haber, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Tamoxifen and breast cancer incidence among women with inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. King, M.C., Wieand, S., Hale, K., Lee, M., Walsh, T., Owens, K., Tait, J., Ford, L., Dunn, B.K., Costantino, J., Wickerham, L., Wolmark, N., Fisher, B. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Human lung carcinogen-DNA adduct levels mediated by genetic polymorphisms in vivo. Kato, S., Bowman, E.D., Harrington, A.M., Blomeke, B., Shields, P.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. BRCA2 germline mutations in familial pancreatic carcinoma. Hahn, S.A., Greenhalf, B., Ellis, I., Sina-Frey, M., Rieder, H., Korte, B., Gerdes, B., Kress, R., Ziegler, A., Raeburn, J.A., Campra, D., Grützmann, R., Rehder, H., Rothmund, M., Schmiegel, W., Neoptolemos, J.P., Bartsch, D.K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. Packer, M., Coats, A.J., Fowler, M.B., Katus, H.A., Krum, H., Mohacsi, P., Rouleau, J.L., Tendera, M., Castaigne, A., Roecker, E.B., Schultz, M.K., DeMets, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Sclerotherapy with or without octreotide for acute variceal bleeding. Besson, I., Ingrand, P., Person, B., Boutroux, D., Heresbach, D., Bernard, P., Hochain, P., Larricq, J., Gourlaouen, A., Ribard, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  42. Early termination of pregnancy with mifepristone (RU 486) and the orally active prostaglandin misoprostol. Peyron, R., Aubény, E., Targosz, V., Silvestre, L., Renault, M., Elkik, F., Leclerc, P., Ulmann, A., Baulieu, E.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  43. Acetaminophen and other risk factors for excessive warfarin anticoagulation. Hylek, E.M., Heiman, H., Skates, S.J., Sheehan, M.A., Singer, D.E. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  44. Cocaine use and HIV infection in intravenous drug users in San Francisco. Chaisson, R.E., Bacchetti, P., Osmond, D., Brodie, B., Sande, M.A., Moss, A.R. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
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