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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Synthesis and antinociceptive activity of [D-Ala2]Leu-enkephalin derivatives conjugated with the adamantane moiety.

Based on the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of drugs having an adamantane skeleton, an adamantane-based moiety was evaluated as a drug carrier for poorly absorbed compounds, including peptides, active towards the central nervous system (CNS). Seven [D-Ala2]Leu-enkephalin derivatives conjugated with an adamantane-based moiety at the C-terminus or N-terminus were prepared by the solution-phase method and their biological activities were examined. The compounds derivatized at the C-terminus through an ester or amide linkage were much more lipophilic than the parent peptide and exhibited moderate in vitro opioid activity (guinea-pig ileum assay). Among them, four derivatives (1, 2, 4, 5), exhibited significant antinociceptive effects in an in vivo assay (mouse tail-pressure test) after subcutaneous administration. This result suggests that the introduction of the lipophilic adamantane moiety into [D-Ala2]Leu-enkephalin would improve the permeation of the poorly absorbed parent peptide through the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) without loss of antinociceptive effect.[1]


  1. Synthesis and antinociceptive activity of [D-Ala2]Leu-enkephalin derivatives conjugated with the adamantane moiety. Kitagawa, K., Mizobuchi, N., Hama, T., Hibi, T., Konishi, R., Futaki, S. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1997) [Pubmed]
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