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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Ileum

  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with active Crohn's disease affecting the ileum, the ascending colon, or both, a controlled-ileal-release formulation of budesonide was more effective in inducing remission than a slow-release formulation of mesalamine [1].
  • Finally, the antihistamine effect of the heme protein was demonstrated by its inhibition of the histamine-provoked contractures of the guinea pig ileum [2].
  • To determine the contribution of the colon in Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin-mediated diarrheal disease, toxin binding, guanyl cyclase activation, and toxin-induced water flux in the rat colon and ileum were compared [3].
  • Substance P activation of enteric neurons in response to intraluminal Clostridium difficile toxin A in the rat ileum [4].
  • The tissue content of noradrenaline in the celiac ganglion, which projects to the ileum, was increased at 8-week diabetes compared with both weight-restricted and untreated controls, whereas the diabetic state had no effect on the levels of noradrenaline of the inferior mesenteric ganglion, which projects to the distal colon [5].

Psychiatry related information on Ileum


High impact information on Ileum

  • The isolated homeobox gene Enx (Hox11L1) is expressed in enteric neurons innervating distal ileum, and proximal and distal colon [11].
  • In peripheral tissues, the highest concentration of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity is found in the ileum, where it is present in endocrine-like cells and nerve fibres [12].
  • A comparable, but distinct dependence can be induced by incubating the ileum with clonidine [6].
  • To demonstrate dependence, we challenged the ileum by removing drug or by adding the selective purine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline, which does not substantially inhibit phosphodiesterase, or caffeine [6].
  • Immunohistochemical studies indicate an exceedingly dense network of SP-containing nerves within the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig ileum [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ileum

  • In the orally fed jejunectomized dogs, the ileum became dialed with mucosal hyperplasia, the villus height increased from 796 +/- SEM 26 mum to 1102 +/- 28 mum (P less than 0.001), and there was a corresponding increase in glucose absorption in vivo (milligrams -centimeter of intestine -1min-1) from 5.3 +/- 1.2 to 10.1 +/-1 [14].
  • Hepatic metabolism of cholesterol in Crohn's disease. Effect of partial resection of ileum [15].
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Clostridium difficile toxin A and cholera toxin on fluid secretion, intestinal permeability, and arachidonate metabolites in rabbit ileum [16].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: The NOD2 gene, which is strongly associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD) of the terminal ileum, interacts with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inducing cellular activation [17].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metronidazole therapy for 3 months decreases the severity of early recurrence of Crohn's disease in the neoterminal ileum after resection and seems to delay symptomatic recurrence [18].

Biological context of Ileum


Anatomical context of Ileum


Associations of Ileum with chemical compounds

  • An unusual benzazocine elicits acetylcholine release in the isolated guinea pig ileum [29].
  • Functional roles of luminal sodium and potassium in water transport across desert scorpion ileum [30].
  • Bee venom and phospholipase A2 extracted from bee venom enhanced guanylate cyclase (E.C. activity two- to threefold in rat liver, lung, heart, kidney, ileum, and cerebellum [31].
  • The calcium dependence of these serotonin effects was associated with increased uptake of 45Ca into rabbit ileum, including increaed 45Ca uptake from the serosal surface [32].
  • The enterotoxin also produced a significant depression of xylose absorption in both the jejunum and ileum but did not affect the absorption of either glucose or L-leucine [33].

Gene context of Ileum


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ileum


  1. A comparison of budesonide and mesalamine for active Crohn's disease. International Budesonide-Mesalamine Study Group. Thomsen, O.O., Cortot, A., Jewell, D., Wright, J.P., Winter, T., Veloso, F.T., Vatn, M., Persson, T., Pettersson, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. High affinity histamine-binding and antihistaminic activity of the salivary nitric oxide-carrying heme protein (nitrophorin) of Rhodnius prolixus. Ribeiro, J.M., Walker, F.A. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Escherichia coli enterotoxin (STa) binds to receptors, stimulates guanyl cyclase, and impairs absorption in rat colon. Mezoff, A.G., Giannella, R.A., Eade, M.N., Cohen, M.B. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Substance P activation of enteric neurons in response to intraluminal Clostridium difficile toxin A in the rat ileum. Mantyh, C.R., Pappas, T.N., Lapp, J.A., Washington, M.K., Neville, L.M., Ghilardi, J.R., Rogers, S.D., Mantyh, P.W., Vigna, S.R. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the innervation of the ileum and distal colon. Belai, A., Lincoln, J., Milner, P., Burnstock, G. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Novel form of drug-dependence--on adenosine in guinea pig ileum. Collier, H.O., Tucker, J.F. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Bile salt inhibition of motility in the isolated perfused rabbit terminal ileum. Armstrong, D.N., Krenz, H.K., Modlin, I.M., Ballantyne, G.H. Gut (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. The properties of the clonidine withdrawal response of guinea-pig isolated ileum. Chahl, L.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of short-term food deprivation on luminal protein digestion in suckling and weanling rats. Britton, J.R., Koldovský, O. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Morphine dependence in the isolated guinea-pig ileum and its modification by p-chlorophenylalanine. Rodríguez, R., Luján, M., Campos, A.E., Chroné, R. Life Sci. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Enx (Hox11L1)-deficient mice develop myenteric neuronal hyperplasia and megacolon. Shirasawa, S., Yunker, A.M., Roth, K.A., Brown, G.A., Horning, S., Korsmeyer, S.J. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence for neurotensin as a non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitter in guinea pig ileum. Goedert, M., Hunter, J.C., Ninkovic, M. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Evidence that substance P is a neurotransmitter in the myenteric plexus. Morita, K., North, R.A., Katayama, Y. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of oral versus intravenous nutrition on intestinal adaptation after small bowel resection in the dog. Feldman, E.J., Dowling, R.H., McNaughton, J., Peters, T.J. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Hepatic metabolism of cholesterol in Crohn's disease. Effect of partial resection of ileum. Akerlund, J.E., Reihnér, E., Angelin, B., Rudling, M., Ewerth, S., Björkhem, I., Einarsson, K. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparative study of Clostridium difficile toxin A and cholera toxin in rabbit ileum. Triadafilopoulos, G., Pothoulakis, C., Weiss, R., Giampaolo, C., Lamont, J.T. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Crohn's disease and the NOD2 gene: a role for paneth cells. Lala, S., Ogura, Y., Osborne, C., Hor, S.Y., Bromfield, A., Davies, S., Ogunbiyi, O., Nuñez, G., Keshav, S. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Controlled trial of metronidazole treatment for prevention of Crohn's recurrence after ileal resection. Rutgeerts, P., Hiele, M., Geboes, K., Peeters, M., Penninckx, F., Aerts, R., Kerremans, R. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Magnesium absorption in the human small intestine. Results in normal subjects, patients with chronic renal disease, and patients with absorptive hypercalciuria. Brannan, P.G., Vergne-Marini, P., Pak, C.Y., Hull, A.R., Fordtran, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Adenosine and adenosine analogues stimulate adenosine cyclic 3', 5'-monophosphate-dependent chloride secretion in the mammalian ileum. Dobbins, J.W., Laurenson, J.P., Forrest, J.N. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Structure-activity relationships of somatostatin analogs in the rabbit ileum and the rat colon. Rosenthal, L.E., Yamashiro, D.J., Rivier, J., Vale, W., Brown, M., Dharmsathaphorn, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of cisapride on cholinergic neurotransmission and propulsive motility in the guinea pig ileum. Tonini, M., Galligan, J.J., North, R.A. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Ileal glucagon gene expression: ontogeny and response to massive small bowel resection. Taylor, R.G., Verity, K., Fuller, P.J. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Diarrhea in streptozocin-treated rats. Loss of adrenergic regulation of intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport. Chang, E.B., Bergenstal, R.M., Field, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Small intestine hexose transport in experimental diabetes. Increased transporter mRNA and protein expression in enterocytes. Burant, C.F., Flink, S., DePaoli, A.M., Chen, J., Lee, W.S., Hediger, M.A., Buse, J.B., Chang, E.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Amiloride inhibits mammalian renal kallikrein and a kallikrein-like enzyme from toad bladder and skin. Margolius, H.S., Chao, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Oxalate transport by anion exchange across rabbit ileal brush border. Knickelbein, R.G., Aronson, P.S., Dobbins, J.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Membrane distribution of sodium-hydrogen and chloride-bicarbonate exchangers in crypt and villus cell membranes from rabbit ileum. Knickelbein, R.G., Aronson, P.S., Dobbins, J.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. An unusual benzazocine elicits acetylcholine release in the isolated guinea pig ileum. Valentino, R.J., Smith, C.B., Woods, J.H. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Functional roles of luminal sodium and potassium in water transport across desert scorpion ileum. Ahearn, G.A., Hadley, N.F. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Bee venom enhances guanylate cyclase activity. Vesely, D.L. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. Calcium dependence of serotonin-induced changes in rabbit ileal electrolyte transport. Donowitz, M., Asarkof, N., Pike, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of Klebsiella pneumoniae enterotoxin on intestinal transport in the rat. Klipstein, F.A., Horowitz, I.R., Engert, R.F., Schnenk, E.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  34. Growth retardation, duodenal lesions, and aberrant ileum architecture in triple null mice lacking EGF, amphiregulin, and TGF-alpha. Troyer, K.L., Luetteke, N.C., Saxon, M.L., Qiu, T.H., Xian, C.J., Lee, D.C. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Akt2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and PTEN are in lipid rafts of intestinal cells: role in absorption and differentiation. Li, X., Leu, S., Cheong, A., Zhang, H., Baibakov, B., Shih, C., Birnbaum, M.J., Donowitz, M. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Cyclooxygenase 2 is induced in colonic epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel disease. Singer, I.I., Kawka, D.W., Schloemann, S., Tessner, T., Riehl, T., Stenson, W.F. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Amount and distribution of carbonic anhydrases CA I and CA II in the gastrointestinal tract. Lönnerholm, G., Selking, O., Wistrand, P.J. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  38. Transferrin receptors in the human gastrointestinal tract. Relationship to body iron stores. Banerjee, D., Flanagan, P.R., Cluett, J., Valberg, L.S. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  39. Rat cholangiocytes absorb bile acids at their apical domain via the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. Lazaridis, K.N., Pham, L., Tietz, P., Marinelli, R.A., deGroen, P.C., Levine, S., Dawson, P.A., LaRusso, N.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits renal collecting duct Na+ absorption by activating the EP1 receptor. Guan, Y., Zhang, Y., Breyer, R.M., Fowler, B., Davis, L., Hébert, R.L., Breyer, M.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  41. Effect of magnesium on active and passive sodium transport in the human ileum. Fordtran, J.S., Morawski, S.G., Santa Ana, C.A. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  42. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide actions on the guinea pig intestinal mucosa during neural stimulation. Cooke, H.J., Zafirova, M., Carey, H.V., Walsh, J.H., Grider, J. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  43. Enteric nerves in diabetic rats: increase in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide but not substance P. Belai, A., Lincoln, J., Milner, P., Crowe, R., Loesch, A., Burnstock, G. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
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