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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Topical immune modulation (TIM): a novel approach to the immunotherapy of systemic disease.

In this article, we present the concept of topical immune modulation, or TIM. TIM is based on the observation that skin contact sensitizing agents such as poison ivy, poison oak and dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) are potent stimulants of the cellular immune system that combats viruses and other pathogens. We discuss the evolution of DNCB as a therapeutic modality in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and we explore the mechanism by which DNCB directs the immune response. The potential use of topical immune modulators in autoimmune disease and vaccine development is also delineated. TIM represents a novel approach to immunotherapy that should have widespread application for immunologic diseases.[1]


  1. Topical immune modulation (TIM): a novel approach to the immunotherapy of systemic disease. Stricker, R.B., Goldberg, B., Epstein, W.L. Immunol. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
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