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Chemical Compound Review

DNCB     1-chloro-2,4-dinitro-benzene

Synonyms: ClDNB, DNPCl, CDNB, ARONIS27043, CHEMBL292687, ...
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Disease relevance of Dinitrochlorobenzene


Psychiatry related information on Dinitrochlorobenzene

  • The results show that DNCB immunotherapy or immunoprophylaxis prior to or following DMBA tumor induction can alter the type of tumor produced and stimulate an infiltration of lymphoid cells into the tumor area probably invoking immune defense mechanisms [6].
  • The immunoreactivity to DNCB and DCP was modulated by direct suggestions and guided imagery under hypnosis [7].
  • Sixty-four patients suffering from senile dementia were compared with 71 age-matched controls suffering from functional psychiatric illness, in terms of their chromosome complement, tuberculin and dinitrochlorobenzene response and total immunoglobulin levels [8].

High impact information on Dinitrochlorobenzene

  • Cell-mediated responses in patients with acute and chronic forms of Type B hepatitis were tested by lymphocyte transformation to purified hepatitis surface antigen (HBS Ag) and to phytohemagglutinin, by dinitrochlorobenzene sensitization and by response to skin-test antigens [2].
  • As expected, CD45RC+ (but not RC-) CD4 T cells from normal unprimed rats transferred a DNCB-specific DTH response, whereas, 4 d after sensitization the CD45RC- (memory) subset alone contained the DNCB reactivity [4].
  • However, when donor cells were collected from thymectomized rats sensitized two mo earlier, DNCB-specific responses were transferred by both CD45RC- and RC+ subsets suggesting that many of the latter had developed from cells with a memory phenotype [4].
  • The hybrids were characterized by analysis of DNA content, P-glycoprotein expression by Western blotting, GST activity by use of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate, and sensitivity to reversal of resistance to vincristine by exposure to verapamil [9].
  • Enzyme activity measurements were made for leukocyte cytosolic GST toward transstilbene oxide (TSO), 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and benzo[a]pyrene-4,5-oxide (BaPO), and for microsomal EH toward BaPO [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Dinitrochlorobenzene


Biological context of Dinitrochlorobenzene


Anatomical context of Dinitrochlorobenzene


Associations of Dinitrochlorobenzene with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Dinitrochlorobenzene

  • The polypeptide encoded by the GSTM4 cDNA, produced in a bacterial expression system, conjugates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene to GSH with a specific activity of 1.39 +/- 0.21 mumol/min/mg [30].
  • Furthermore, both Grx1 and Grx2 are shown be active as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and their activity with model substrates such as 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene is similar to their activity with hydroperoxides [31].
  • The increase in the expression of CD86 induced by NiCl2 or DNCB was most remarkable, being observed in DC from almost all the subjects we examined [32].
  • Nickel and DNCB induce CCR7 expression on human dendritic cells through different signalling pathways: role of TNF-alpha and MAPK [33].
  • It was found that the high levels of IL-4 and IL-10 secretion stimulated by TMA or MDI, and the lower levels of these cytokines induced by DNCB or formaldehyde, were in all cases dependent upon the presence of CD4- cells [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dinitrochlorobenzene


  1. Interleukin-2 as therapy for HIV disease. Dinitrochlorobenzene Study Group. Goldberg, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Lymphocyte stimulation in hepatitis B infections. Tong, M.J., Wallace, A.M., Peters, R.L., Reynolds, T.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunotherapy of malignancy in humans. Current status. Holmes, E.C., Eilber, F.R., Morton, D.L. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. CD45RC isoforms define two types of CD4 memory T cells, one of which depends on persisting antigen. Bunce, C., Bell, E.B. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Immune function of successfully treated lymphoma patients. King, G.W., Yanes, B., Hurtubise, P.E., Balcerzak, S.P., LoBuglio, A.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Immunotherapy of chemically-induced tumors in the hamster cheek pouch with dinitrochlorobenzene. Marshack, M., Toto, P., Kerman, R. J. Dent. Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Increase and decrease of delayed cutaneous reactions obtained by hypnotic suggestions during sensitization. Studies on dinitrochlorobenzene and diphenylcyclopropenone. Zachariae, R., Bjerring, P. Allergy (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunological factors in senile dementia. Kellett, J.M., Martin, J.M., Fry, A.H. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Dominant expression of multiple drug resistance after in vitro X-irradiation exposure in intraspecific Chinese hamster ovary hybrid cells. McClean, S., Hosking, L.K., Hill, B.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Glutathione S-transferase and epoxide hydrolase activity in human leukocytes in relation to risk of lung cancer and other smoking-related cancers. Heckbert, S.R., Weiss, N.S., Hornung, S.K., Eaton, D.L., Motulsky, A.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Long term effects of radiation of T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Fuks, Z., Strober, S., Bobrove, A.M., Sasazuki, T., McMichael, A., Kaplan, H.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Antibodies to guinea pig lymphokines. II. Suppression of delayed hypersensitivity reactions by a "second generation" goat antibody against guinea pig lymphokines. Geczy, C.L., Geczy, A.F., De Weck, A.L. J. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Controls on the biosynthesis of the manganese-containing superoxide dismutase of Escherichia coli. Effects of thiols. Gardner, P.R., Fridovich, I. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Studies on the mechanisms of mucous cell depletion in experimental colitis. Kaftan, S.M., Wright, N.A. J. Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Induction of glutathione S-transferases in Arabidopsis by herbicide safeners. DeRidder, B.P., Dixon, D.P., Beussman, D.J., Edwards, R., Goldsbrough, P.B. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Dinitrochlorobenzene sensitisation test in women on hormonal contraceptives. Gerretsen, G., Kremer, J., Bleumink, E., Nater, J.P. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Endogenous cell-mediated immunity, blood transfusion, and outcome of renal transplantation. Watson, M.A., Briggs, J.D., Diamandopoulos, A.A., Hamilton, D.N., Dick, H.M. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Inhibition of delayed hypersensitivity reaction in skin (DNCB test) by 8-methoxypsoralen photochemotherapy. Possible basis for pseudo-promoting action in skin carcinogenesis? Strauss, G.H., Bridges, B.A., Greaves, M., Hall-Smith, P., Price, M., Vella-Briffa, D. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of hyperthermia on the immune response of normal rabbits. Shah, S.A., Dickson, J.A. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Biotransformation in carcinogen-induced diploid and polyploid hepatocytes separated by centrifugal elutriation. Watkins, J.B., Thierau, D., Schwarz, L.R. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. In vivo immune responses of mice during carcinogenesis by ultraviolet irradiation. Kripke, M.L., Lofgreen, J.S., Beard, J., Jessup, J.M., Fisher, M.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of hepatic glutathione transferase and suppression of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells by Sudan III and related azo dyes. Ito, Y., Maeda, S., Souno, K., Ueda, N., Sugiyama, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Amplification and increased expression of alpha class glutathione S-transferase-encoding genes associated with resistance to nitrogen mustards. Lewis, A.D., Hickson, I.D., Robson, C.N., Harris, A.L., Hayes, J.D., Griffiths, S.A., Manson, M.M., Hall, A.E., Moss, J.E., Wolf, C.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Oxidant damage to erythrocyte membrane in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: correlation with in vivo reduced glutathione concentration and membrane protein oxidation. Johnson, R.M., Ravindranath, Y., el-Alfy, M., Goyette, G. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of murine tumors on delayed hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene. I. Description of anergy caused by transplanted tumors. Jessup, J.M., Cohen, M.H., Tomaszewski, M.M., Felix, E.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. NADPH, not glutathione, status modulates oxidant sensitivity in normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient erythrocytes. Scott, M.D., Zuo, L., Lubin, B.H., Chiu, D.T. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Enzymatic conjugation of erythrocyte glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene: the fate of glutathione conjugate in erythrocytes and the effect of glutathione depletion on hemoglobin. Awasthi, Y.C., Garg, H.S., Dao, D.D., Partridge, C.A., Srivastava, S.K. Blood (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of the hepatocarcinogen nafenopin, a peroxisome proliferator, on the activities of rat liver glutathione-requiring enzymes and catalase in comparison to the action of phenobarbital. Furukawa, K., Numoto, S., Furuya, K., Furukawa, N.T., Williams, G.M. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Transduction of NIH 3T3 cells with a retrovirus carrying both human MDR1 and glutathione S-transferase pi produces broad-range multidrug resistance. Doroshow, J.H., Metz, M.Z., Matsumoto, L., Winters, K.A., Sakai, M., Muramatsu, M., Kane, S.E. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Isolation and analysis of the gene and cDNA for a human Mu class glutathione S-transferase, GSTM4. Comstock, K.E., Johnson, K.J., Rifenbery, D., Henner, W.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Role of yeast glutaredoxins as glutathione S-transferases. Collinson, E.J., Grant, C.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Dendritic cells differently respond to haptens and irritants by their production of cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Aiba, S., Terunuma, A., Manome, H., Tagami, H. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Nickel and DNCB induce CCR7 expression on human dendritic cells through different signalling pathways: role of TNF-alpha and MAPK. Boislève, F., Kerdine-Römer, S., Rougier-Larzat, N., Pallardy, M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets to the cytokine secretion patterns induced in mice during sensitization to contact and respiratory chemical allergens. Dearman, R.J., Moussavi, A., Kemeny, D.M., Kimber, I. Immunology (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunotherapy of non-clinical vaginal cancer. Guthrie, D., Way, S. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  36. Clinical studies of methanol extraction residue fraction of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin as an immunostimulant in patients with advanced cancer. Moertel, C.G., Ritts, R.E., Schutt, A.J., Hahn, R.G. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  37. Clinical and immunological significance of human melanoma cytotoxic antibody. Bodurtha, A.J., Chee, D.O., Laucius, J.F., Mastrangelo, M.J., Prehn, R.T. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
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