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MeSH Review

Immune System

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Disease relevance of Immune System


Psychiatry related information on Immune System


High impact information on Immune System

  • It is now clear that MS is not just a disease of the immune system, but that factors contributed by the central nervous system are equally important and must be considered in the future [11].
  • Analyses of genetically modified mice in which SOCS proteins are overexpressed or deleted have established that this family of negative regulators has indispensable roles in regulating cytokine responses in cells of the immune system as well as other tissues [12].
  • Control of apoptosis in the immune system: Bcl-2, BH3-only proteins and more [13].
  • A functional immune system requires the selection of T lymphocytes expressing receptors that are major histocompatibility complex restricted but tolerant to self-antigens [14].
  • First, thanks to the innate immune system's regulation of the main costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, the immune system rarely mistakes a pathogen for a self-antigen [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Immune System


Biological context of Immune System


Anatomical context of Immune System


Associations of Immune System with chemical compounds


Gene context of Immune System


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Immune System


  1. Multiple defects in the immune system of Lyn-deficient mice, culminating in autoimmune disease. Hibbs, M.L., Tarlinton, D.M., Armes, J., Grail, D., Hodgson, G., Maglitto, R., Stacker, S.A., Dunn, A.R. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. An immunomodulatory molecule of symbiotic bacteria directs maturation of the host immune system. Mazmanian, S.K., Liu, C.H., Tzianabos, A.O., Kasper, D.L. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Soluble CD4 molecules neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Traunecker, A., Lüke, W., Karjalainen, K. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. T-cell-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis by signalling cross-talk between RANKL and IFN-gamma. Takayanagi, H., Ogasawara, K., Hida, S., Chiba, T., Murata, S., Sato, K., Takaoka, A., Yokochi, T., Oda, H., Tanaka, K., Nakamura, K., Taniguchi, T. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Scrapie replication in lymphoid tissues depends on prion protein-expressing follicular dendritic cells. Brown, K.L., Stewart, K., Ritchie, D.L., Mabbott, N.A., Williams, A., Fraser, H., Morrison, W.I., Bruce, M.E. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Toll-like receptors. Takeda, K., Kaisho, T., Akira, S. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence for long-term memory of the mucosal immune system: milk secretory immunoglobulin A against Shigella lipopolysaccharides. Hayani, K.C., Guerrero, M.L., Ruiz-Palacios, G.M., Gomez, H.F., Cleary, T.G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, and natural killer cell activity in vitiligo. Mozzanica, N., Villa, M.L., Foppa, S., Vignati, G., Cattaneo, A., Diotti, R., Finzi, A.F. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Oxidative stress, perturbed calcium homeostasis, and immune dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Mattson, M.P. J. Neurovirol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Insect psychoneuroimmunology: immune response reduces learning in protein starved bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Riddell, C.E., Mallon, E.B. Brain Behav. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunology of multiple sclerosis. Sospedra, M., Martin, R. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins in regulation of the immune response. Alexander, W.S., Hilton, D.J. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Control of apoptosis in the immune system: Bcl-2, BH3-only proteins and more. Marsden, V.S., Strasser, A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Positive and negative selection of T cells. Starr, T.K., Jameson, S.C., Hogquist, K.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. A trip through my life with an immunological theme. Janeway, C.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Prevention of lipopolysaccharide-induced lethal toxicity by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Novogrodsky, A., Vanichkin, A., Patya, M., Gazit, A., Osherov, N., Levitzki, A. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect on exophthalmos of various methods of treatment of Graves' disease. Gwinup, G., Elias, A.N., Ascher, M.S. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Antibodies that are specific for a single amino acid interchange in a protein epitope use structurally distinct variable regions. Stark, S.E., Caton, A.J. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of levamisole on normal and malignant murine lymphocytes. Gordon, W.C., Prager, M.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Subtractive immunization yields monoclonal antibodies that specifically inhibit metastasis. Brooks, P.C., Lin, J.M., French, D.L., Quigley, J.P. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. CD81 (TAPA-1): a molecule involved in signal transduction and cell adhesion in the immune system. Levy, S., Todd, S.C., Maecker, H.T. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Transcription factors of the NFAT family: regulation and function. Rao, A., Luo, C., Hogan, P.G. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Nuclear hormone receptors in T lymphocytes. Winoto, A., Littman, D.R. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. WNT signaling and lymphocyte development. van de Wetering, M., de Lau, W., Clevers, H. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. NMR structure and mutagenesis of the Fas (APO-1/CD95) death domain. Huang, B., Eberstadt, M., Olejniczak, E.T., Meadows, R.P., Fesik, S.W. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Ulcerative colitis-like disease in mice with a disrupted interleukin-2 gene. Sadlack, B., Merz, H., Schorle, H., Schimpl, A., Feller, A.C., Horak, I. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Lymphoid follicle destruction and immunosuppression after repeated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide administration. Heikenwalder, M., Polymenidou, M., Junt, T., Sigurdson, C., Wagner, H., Akira, S., Zinkernagel, R., Aguzzi, A. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Lymphokine dependence of in vivo expression of MHC class II antigens by endothelium. Groenewegen, G., Buurman, W.A., van der Linden, C.J. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. FasL--too much of a good thing? Transplanted grafts of pancreatic islet cells engineered to express Fas ligand are destroyed not protected by the immune system. Lau, H.T., Stoeckert, C.J. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated by Toll-like receptor 5. Hayashi, F., Smith, K.D., Ozinsky, A., Hawn, T.R., Yi, E.C., Goodlett, D.R., Eng, J.K., Akira, S., Underhill, D.M., Aderem, A. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. The effects of cyclosporin A on the immune system. Shevach, E.M. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. A second serine protease associated with mannan-binding lectin that activates complement. Thiel, S., Vorup-Jensen, T., Stover, C.M., Schwaeble, W., Laursen, S.B., Poulsen, K., Willis, A.C., Eggleton, P., Hansen, S., Holmskov, U., Reid, K.B., Jensenius, J.C. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. A role for the C3a anaphylatoxin receptor in the effector phase of asthma. Humbles, A.A., Lu, B., Nilsson, C.A., Lilly, C., Israel, E., Fujiwara, Y., Gerard, N.P., Gerard, C. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Role of the inositol phosphatase SHIP in negative regulation of the immune system by the receptor Fc(gamma)RIIB. Ono, M., Bolland, S., Tempst, P., Ravetch, J.V. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Reflections on the discovery and significance of estrogen receptor beta. Koehler, K.F., Helguero, L.A., Haldosén, L.A., Warner, M., Gustafsson, J.A. Endocr. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Host response to EBV infection in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease results from mutations in an SH2-domain encoding gene. Coffey, A.J., Brooksbank, R.A., Brandau, O., Oohashi, T., Howell, G.R., Bye, J.M., Cahn, A.P., Durham, J., Heath, P., Wray, P., Pavitt, R., Wilkinson, J., Leversha, M., Huckle, E., Shaw-Smith, C.J., Dunham, A., Rhodes, S., Schuster, V., Porta, G., Yin, L., Serafini, P., Sylla, B., Zollo, M., Franco, B., Bolino, A., Seri, M., Lanyi, A., Davis, J.R., Webster, D., Harris, A., Lenoir, G., de St Basile, G., Jones, A., Behloradsky, B.H., Achatz, H., Murken, J., Fassler, R., Sumegi, J., Romeo, G., Vaudin, M., Ross, M.T., Meindl, A., Bentley, D.R. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Plexin A is a neuronal semaphorin receptor that controls axon guidance. Winberg, M.L., Noordermeer, J.N., Tamagnone, L., Comoglio, P.M., Spriggs, M.K., Tessier-Lavigne, M., Goodman, C.S. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Essential role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling. Takeda, K., Tanaka, T., Shi, W., Matsumoto, M., Minami, M., Kashiwamura, S., Nakanishi, K., Yoshida, N., Kishimoto, T., Akira, S. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. ICOS is an inducible T-cell co-stimulator structurally and functionally related to CD28. Hutloff, A., Dittrich, A.M., Beier, K.C., Eljaschewitsch, B., Kraft, R., Anagnostopoulos, I., Kroczek, R.A. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. RICK/Rip2/CARDIAK mediates signalling for receptors of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Kobayashi, K., Inohara, N., Hernandez, L.D., Galán, J.E., Núñez, G., Janeway, C.A., Medzhitov, R., Flavell, R.A. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Minor histocompatibility antigens. Lindahl, K.F. Trends Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  42. The use of monoclonal antibodies to achieve immunological tolerance. Waldmann, H., Cobbold, S. Immunol. Today (1993) [Pubmed]
  43. Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade. Iwai, Y., Ishida, M., Tanaka, Y., Okazaki, T., Honjo, T., Minato, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  44. Mechanisms of immune-mediated myocyte injury. Barry, W.H. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
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