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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes in hereditary multiple exostoses.

Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT; MIM 133700) is an autosomal dominant bone disorder characterized by the presence of multiple benign cartilage-capped tumors (exostoses). Besides suffering complications caused by the pressure of these exostoses on the surrounding tissues, EXT patients are at an increased risk for malignant chondrosarcoma, which may develop from an exostosis. EXT is genetically heterogeneous, and three loci have been identified so far: EXT1, on chromosome 8q23-q24; EXT2, on 11p11-p12; and EXT3, on the short arm of chromosome 19. The EXT1 and EXT2 genes were cloned recently, and they were shown to be homologous. We have now analyzed the EXT1 and EXT2 genes, in 26 EXT families originating from nine countries, to identify the underlying disease-causing mutation. Of the 26 families, 10 families had an EXT1 mutation, and 10 had an EXT2 mutation. Twelve of these mutations have never been described before. In addition, we have reviewed all EXT1 and EXT2 mutations reported so far, to determine the nature, frequency, and distribution of mutations that cause EXT. From this analysis, we conclude that mutations in either the EXT1 or the EXT2 gene are responsible for the majority of EXT cases. Most of the mutations in EXT1 and EXT2 cause premature termination of the EXT proteins, whereas missense mutations are rare. The development is thus mainly due to loss of function of the EXT genes, consistent with the hypothesis that the EXT genes have a tumor- suppressor function.[1]


  1. Mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes in hereditary multiple exostoses. Wuyts, W., Van Hul, W., De Boulle, K., Hendrickx, J., Bakker, E., Vanhoenacker, F., Mollica, F., Lüdecke, H.J., Sayli, B.S., Pazzaglia, U.E., Mortier, G., Hamel, B., Conrad, E.U., Matsushita, M., Raskind, W.H., Willems, P.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
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