The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal segment of cystatin C create selective protein inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteinases.

We used site-directed mutagenesis to alter the specificity of human cystatin C, an inhibitor with a broad reactivity against cysteine proteinases. Nine cystatin C variants containing amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal (L9W, V10W, V10F and V10R) and/or the C-terminal (W106G) enzyme-binding regions were designed and produced in Escherichia coli. It was discovered that the inhibition profile of the cystatin could be altered by changing residues 9 and 10, which are proposed to bind in the S3 and S2 substrate-binding pockets respectively of the enzymes. All of the variants with substitutions in the N-terminal segment displayed decreased binding to cathepsins B and H, indicating that the S3 and S2 pockets of these enzymes cannot easily accommodate large aromatic residues. The introduction of a charged residue into S2 (variant V10R) created a more specific inhibitor to distinguish cathepsin B from cathepsin H. Cathepsin L showed a preference for larger aromatic residues in S2. In contrast, cathepsin S preferred phenylalanine to valine in S2, but bound less tightly to the V10W cystatin variant. The latter variant proved to be valuable for discriminating between cathepsin L and cathepsin S (Ki 2.4 and 190 pM respectively). The equilibrium dissociation constant of the complex between cathepsin L and variant L9W/W106G showed little difference in affinity from that of the cathepsin L complex with the singly substituted W106G variant. In contrast, the L9W/W106G variant displayed increased specificity for cathepsin S with a Ki of 10 pM. Our results clearly indicate differences in the specificity of interaction between the N-terminal region of cystatin C and cathepsins B, H, L and S, and that, although cystatin C has evolved to be a good inhibitor of all of the mammalian cysteine proteinases, more specific inhibitors of the individual enzymes can be engineered.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities