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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of an FAD superfamily containing protoporphyrinogen oxidases, monoamine oxidases, and phytoene desaturase. Expression and characterization of phytoene desaturase of Myxococcus xanthus.

A large number of FAD-containing proteins have previously been shown to contain a signature sequence that is referred to as the dinucleotide binding motif. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase ( PPO), the penultimate enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is an FAD-containing protein that catalyzes the six electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX. Sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of the dinucleotide binding motif at the amino-terminal end of the protein. Analysis of the current data base reveals that PPO has significant sequence similarities to mammalian monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B, as well as to bacterial and plant phytoene desaturases (PHD). Previously MAOs have been shown to contain FAD, but there are no publications demonstrating the presence of FAD in purified PHDs. We have carried out the expression and purification of PHD from the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus and demonstrate the presence of noncovalently bound FAD. Sequence analysis demonstrate that PPO is closely related to bacterial PHDs and more distantly to plant PHDs and animal MAOs. Interestingly bacterial MAOs are no more closely related to PPOs, PHDs, and animal MAO's than they are to the unrelated Pseudomonas phenyl hydroxylase. All of the related sequences contain not only the basic putative dinucleotide binding motif that is found frequently for FAD-binding proteins, but they also have high similarity in an approximately 60-residue long region that extends beyond the dinucleotide motif. This region is not found among any other proteins in the current data base and, therefore, we propose that this region is a signature motif for a superfamily of FAD-containing enzymes that is comprised of PPOs, animal MAOs, and PHDs.[1]


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