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Chemical Compound Review

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Disease relevance of Phytoene


High impact information on Phytoene

  • We investigated the effects of human selection for yellow endosperm color, representing increased carotenoid content, on two maize genes, the Y1 phytoene synthase and PSY2, a putative second phytoene synthase [5].
  • Contrasting effects of selection on sequence diversity and linkage disequilibrium at two phytoene synthase loci [5].
  • The albino sectors of im plants contain reduced levels of carotenoids and increased levels of the carotenoid precursor phytoene [6].
  • Here, we report the identification and characterization of two nonallelic albino mutations, pds1 and pds2 (for phytoene desaturation), that are disrupted in phytoene desaturation and as a result accumulate phytoene, the first C40 compound of the pathway [7].
  • More recently, breeders have selected yellow endosperm variants of maize over ancestral white phenotypes for their increased nutritional value resulting from the up-regulation of the Y1 phytoene synthase gene product in endosperm tissue [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Phytoene


Biological context of Phytoene

  • The leaves of the plants transfected with the antisense PDS sequence developed a white phenotype and also accumulated high levels of phytoene [2].
  • Es. coli JM101 was transformed with the expression plasmid, and transformants were assayed for GGPP synthase and phytoene synthase activity [14].
  • CarQ, a proposed extracytoplasmic (ECF) RNA polymerase sigma factor, is required for expression of the operon and the carC gene that encodes phytoene dehydrogenase [15].
  • Nucleotide sequence of an Arabidopsis cDNA for phytoene synthase [16].
  • A cDNA coding for the carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme phytoene synthase was cloned from a Narcissus pseudonarcissus flower cDNA library, and the corresponding protein was overexpressed in insect cells using the baculovirus lipofection system [17].

Anatomical context of Phytoene

  • Fruit-specific expression was achieved by using the tomato polygalacturonase promoter, and the CRTB protein was targeted to the chromoplast by the tomato phytoene synthase-1 transit sequence [18].
  • Once bound to membranes, activated phytoene desaturase works independently of any added FAD, employing membrane-bound electron acceptors [19].
  • Cells cultured in the biphasic system were viable and able to produce phytoene during 3 days [20].
  • METHODS: Normal human dermal fibroblast cell cultures were exposed to either 50 mJ of UVR or to IL-1 and then incubated with various concentrations of either CoQ10, the colorless carotenoids, phytoene and phytofluene, or to combinations of these antioxidants [21].

Associations of Phytoene with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Phytoene

  • Previous analyses of phytoene-accumulating tissue suggested that there may be feedback regulation of PDS gene transcription, with higher expression in white tissue [26].
  • In this report, we have located the transcription initiation point and have shown that R. sphaeroides possesses an oxygen-regulated CrtI-type phytoene desaturase gene that forms a transcriptional operon with crtB [27].
  • Analysis of the sequence of the Synechocystis pys protein deduced from the gene sequence shows that it is highly homologous to the tomato and Synechococcus phytoene synthases and shows conserved domains with other bacterial phytoene synthase enzymes [28].
  • The enzyme phytoene synthase (Psy) catalyzes the formation of phytoene, an intermediate in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway [29].
  • In contrast, barley infected with wild-type BSMV, or BSMV expressing either N. benthamiana PDS or antisense green fluorescent protein (GFP), did not photo-bleach or accumulate phytoene [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phytoene


  1. A single polypeptide catalyzing the conversion of phytoene to zeta-carotene is transcriptionally regulated during tomato fruit ripening. Pecker, I., Chamovitz, D., Linden, H., Sandmann, G., Hirschberg, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Cytoplasmic inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis with virus-derived RNA. Kumagai, M.H., Donson, J., della-Cioppa, G., Harvey, D., Hanley, K., Grill, L.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. A single gene for lycopene cyclase, phytoene synthase, and regulation of carotene biosynthesis in Phycomyces. Arrach, N., Fernández-Martín, R., Cerdá-Olmedo, E., Avalos, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and reactivation of the recombinant Erwinia uredovora phytoene desaturase. Fraser, P.D., Misawa, N., Linden, H., Yamano, S., Kobayashi, K., Sandmann, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Contrasting effects of selection on sequence diversity and linkage disequilibrium at two phytoene synthase loci. Palaisa, K.A., Morgante, M., Williams, M., Rafalski, A. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Mutations in the Arabidopsis gene IMMUTANS cause a variegated phenotype by inactivating a chloroplast terminal oxidase associated with phytoene desaturation. Carol, P., Stevenson, D., Bisanz, C., Breitenbach, J., Sandmann, G., Mache, R., Coupland, G., Kuntz, M. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic dissection of carotenoid synthesis in arabidopsis defines plastoquinone as an essential component of phytoene desaturation. Norris, S.R., Barrette, T.R., DellaPenna, D. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Long-range patterns of diversity and linkage disequilibrium surrounding the maize Y1 gene are indicative of an asymmetric selective sweep. Palaisa, K., Morgante, M., Tingey, S., Rafalski, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular and biochemical characterization of herbicide-resistant mutants of cyanobacteria reveals that phytoene desaturation is a rate-limiting step in carotenoid biosynthesis. Chamovitz, D., Sandmann, G., Hirschberg, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional assembly of the foreign carotenoid lycopene into the photosynthetic apparatus of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, achieved by replacement of the native 3-step phytoene desaturase with its 4-step counterpart from Erwinia herbicola. Garcia-Asua, G., Cogdell, R.J., Hunter, C.N. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Carotenoids affect proliferation of human prostate cancer cells. Kotake-Nara, E., Kushiro, M., Zhang, H., Sugawara, T., Miyashita, K., Nagao, A. J. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Two Arabidopsis thaliana carotene desaturases, phytoene desaturase and zeta-carotene desaturase, expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyze a poly-cis pathway to yield pro-lycopene. Bartley, G.E., Scolnik, P.A., Beyer, P. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Astaxanthin formation in the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum expressing crtI, crtY, crtW and crtZ. Mukoyama, D., Takeyama, H., Kondo, Y., Matsunaga, T. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. The crtE gene in Erwinia herbicola encodes geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. Math, S.K., Hearst, J.E., Poulter, C.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus: light-dependent membrane sequestration of ECF sigma factor CarQ by anti-sigma factor CarR. Gorham, H.C., McGowan, S.J., Robson, P.R., Hodgson, D.A. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Nucleotide sequence of an Arabidopsis cDNA for phytoene synthase. Scolnik, P.A., Bartley, G.E. Plant Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Phytoene synthase from Narcissus pseudonarcissus: functional expression, galactolipid requirement, topological distribution in chromoplasts and induction during flowering. Schledz, M., al-Babili, S., von Lintig, J., Haubruck, H., Rabbani, S., Kleinig, H., Beyer, P. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Evaluation of transgenic tomato plants expressing an additional phytoene synthase in a fruit-specific manner. Fraser, P.D., Romer, S., Shipton, C.A., Mills, P.B., Kiano, J.W., Misawa, N., Drake, R.G., Schuch, W., Bramley, P.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. A novel, soluble form of phytoene desaturase from Narcissus pseudonarcissus chromoplasts is Hsp70-complexed and competent for flavinylation, membrane association and enzymatic activation. Al-Babili, S., von Lintig, J., Haubruck, H., Beyer, P. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Production of phytoene by herbicide-treated microalgae Dunaliella bardawil in two-phase systems. León, R., Vila, M., Hernánz, D., Vílchez, C. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Anti-inflammatory effects of CoQ10 and colorless carotenoids. Fuller, B., Smith, D., Howerton, A., Kern, D. Journal of cosmetic dermatology (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Dissociation of prelycopersene pyrophosphate synthetase from phytoene synthetase complex of tomato fruit plastids. Islam, M., Lyrene, S.A., Miller, E.M., Porter, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Developmental and stress regulation of gene expression for plastid and cytosolic isoprenoid pathways in pepper fruits. Hugueney, P., Bouvier, F., Badillo, A., Quennemet, J., d'Harlingue, A., Camara, B. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in a monocot plant. Holzberg, S., Brosio, P., Gross, C., Pogue, G.P. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Antitumor activity of beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and phytoene. Mathews-Roth, M.M. Oncology (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of phytoene desaturase expression is independent of leaf pigment content in Arabidopsis thaliana. Wetzel, C.M., Rodermel, S.R. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Early steps in carotenoid biosynthesis: sequences and transcriptional analysis of the crtI and crtB genes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and overexpression and reactivation of crtI in Escherichia coli and R. sphaeroides. Lang, H.P., Cogdell, R.J., Gardiner, A.T., Hunter, C.N. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene coding for phytoene synthase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Martínez-Férez, I., Fernández-González, B., Sandmann, G., Vioque, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. cDNA cloning, expression during development, and genome mapping of PSY2, a second tomato gene encoding phytoene synthase. Bartley, G.E., Scolnik, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Exposure to low irradiances favors the synthesis of 9-cis beta, beta-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Teod.). Orset, S.C., Young, A.J. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Purification and characterization of chaperonin 60 and heat-shock protein 70 from chromoplasts of Narcissus pseudonarcissus. Bonk, M., Tadros, M., Vandekerckhove, J., Al-Babili, S., Beyer, P. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. White mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are defective in phytoene synthase. McCarthy, S.S., Kobayashi, M.C., Niyogi, K.K. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Bacterial phytoene synthase: molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of Erwinia herbicola phytoene synthase. Iwata-Reuyl, D., Math, S.K., Desai, S.B., Poulter, C.D. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Phytoene synthase-2 enzyme activity in tomato does not contribute to carotenoid synthesis in ripening fruit. Fraser, P.D., Kiano, J.W., Truesdale, M.R., Schuch, W., Bramley, P.M. Plant Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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