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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Correlates of antithrombin, protein C, protein S, and TFPI in a healthy elderly cohort.

The majority of fatal acute myocardial infarctions occur in the elderly. Since these events are predominantly thrombotic, we studied the cross-sectional associations of the anticoagulant proteins Antithrombin, Protein C, Protein S. and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI) in a subgroup (n = 400) of the Cardiovascular Health Study (a study of healthy men and women > or = 65 years) free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). We did not observe any strong age-associated trends, although Protein C was lower in older women (p < or = 0.001), and TFPI was higher in older men (p < or = 0.01). The inhibitors were highly intercorrelated, and were associated with increased levels of inflammation-sensitive proteins (e.g., fibrinogen. plasminogen), lipids (especially total and LDL-cholesterol), and coagulation factors, such as Factors VIIc, IXc, and Xc. None was associated with the procoagulant markers Prothrombin Fragment F1-2 or Fibrinopeptide A. Only TFPI was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis: ankle-arm index and internal carotid artery stenosis, p trend < or = 0.01; and carotid wall thickness, p trend < or = 0.05. In multivariate analysis the independent predictors of TFPI were levels of fibrinogen; the fibrinolytic marker plasmin-antiplasmin complex; LDL-cholesterol; and carotid wall thickness (R2 for the model = 0.35). In summary, the inhibitors did not appear to increase with age, and were predominantly associated with inflammation markers and lipids. Since markers of thrombin production do increase with age, we hypothesize that an age-related hemostatic imbalance may ensue, with associated increased thrombotic risk. Only TFPI was associated with subclinical CVD, suggesting that it may more closely reflect endothelial damage.[1]


  1. Correlates of antithrombin, protein C, protein S, and TFPI in a healthy elderly cohort. Sakkinen, P.A., Cushman, M., Psaty, B.M., Kuller, L.H., Bajaj, S.P., Sabharwal, A.K., Boineau, R., Macy, E., Tracy, R.P. Thromb. Haemost. (1998) [Pubmed]
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