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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its metabolites in bone marrow transplantation patients.

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 5 of its metabolites in bone marrow transplant patients and to identify the mechanism of the increase in 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from day 1 to day 2 of cyclophosphamide administration. METHODS: Cyclophosphamide was administered by intravenous infusion (60 mg/kg over 1 hour, once a day) for 2 consecutive days to 18 patients. Cyclophosphamide and 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide concentration time data on day 1 and day 2 were fitted to a model to estimate 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide formation (CLf) and elimination (CLm) clearances. Erythrocyte aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity was measured ex vivo just before the first cyclophosphamide infusion was started (0 hours) and 24 hours after the second cyclophosphamide infusion (48 hours). RESULTS: From day 1 to day 2, the AUC of cyclophosphamide, deschloroethyl cyclophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard decreased 24.8%, 51%, and 29.4% (P < .02), the AUC of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard increased 54.7% and 25% (P < .01), whereas the AUC of phosphoramide mustard was not significantly changed (P > .3). The CLf of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide increased 60% (P < .001), its CLm decreased 27.7% (P < .001), and the fraction of cyclophosphamide dose converted to 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide increased 16% (P < .001) from day 1 to day 2. The activity of patient erythrocyte aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 decreased 23.3% (P < .02) from 0 hours to 48 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The AUC of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide increased from day 1 to day 2 as a result of increased formation and decreased elimination clearances of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity appears to decline as a consequence of cyclophosphamide administration.[1]


  1. Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its metabolites in bone marrow transplantation patients. Ren, S., Kalhorn, T.F., McDonald, G.B., Anasetti, C., Appelbaum, F.R., Slattery, J.T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
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