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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Influence of interfacial rheological properties of mixed emulsifier films on the stability of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of mixtures of the emulsifiers Span 80, 83 and 85 and Tween 80 on multiple emulsion stability. An oscillatory ring-surface rheometer was used to measure interfacial elasticity at the oil-aqueous interface. Multiple emulsions were prepared via a two-step emulsification process and stability was evaluated by investigation of drug transport from freshly prepared and eight-day-old emulsions by use of a dialysis method. Photomicrography and droplet-size analysis of multiple emulsions were also conducted. Spans 80 and 83 were appreciably elastic (683.10+/-29.13 mNm(-1) and 1128.09+/-14.81 mNm(-1), respectively at 5% w/v) when present at the mineral oil-aqueous interface whereas Span 85 and Tween 80 were not (11.10+/-3.88 mNm(-1) (5% w/v) and 0 (0.1-5% w/v) respectively). The interfacial elasticities of Spans 80 and 83 decreased in the presence of Tween 80 in the aqueous phase; this was attributed to co-adsorption of Tween 80 at the interface or aqueous-phase solubilization of the Spans within mixed micelles, or both. Drug-transport studies indicated that drug release on storage was lower from water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsions prepared with 5% w/v Span 80 or 83 and 0.1% w/v Tween 80 than from emulsions prepared with 5% w/v Spans 80 or 83 and 1% w/v Tween 80. Photomicrography and droplet-size analysis indicated the same trend-emulsions containing a higher percentage of Tween 80 were less stable. The relatively stable w/o/w emulsions (e.g. 5% w/v Spans 80 or 83 and 0.1% w/v Tween 80) contained a large number of multiple droplets for up to eight weeks of storage whereas the relatively unstable w/o/w emulsions (e.g., 5% w/v Span 85 and 0.1% w/v Tween 80 and 5% w/v Spans and 1% w/v Tween 80) contained mostly simple droplets after only one week of storage. The mean volume/weight droplet size decreased on storage with breakdown of these w/o/w emulsions to simple oil-in-water emulsions. There was a positive correlation between the interfacial elasticity and emulsion stability data. Mixed emulsifiers giving higher film strength, as quantified by interfacial elasticity measurements, resulted in more stable w/o/w emulsions.[1]


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