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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Corynebacterium glutamicum is equipped with four secondary carriers for compatible solutes: identification, sequencing, and characterization of the proline/ectoine uptake system, ProP, and the ectoine/proline/glycine betaine carrier, EctP.

Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the compatible solutes glycine betaine, proline, and ectoine for protection against hyperosmotic shock. Osmoregulated glycine betaine carrier BetP and proline permease PutP have been previously characterized; we have identified and characterized two additional osmoregulated secondary transporters for compatible solutes in C. glutamicum, namely, the proline/ectoine carrier, ProP, and the ectoine/glycine betaine/proline carrier, EctP. A DeltabetP DeltaputP DeltaproP DeltaectP mutant was unable to respond to hyperosmotic stress, indicating that no additional uptake system for these compatible solutes is present. Osmoregulated ProP consists of 504 residues and preferred proline (Km, 48 microM) to ectoine (Km, 132 microM). The proP gene could not be expressed from its own promoter in C. glutamicum; however, expression was observed in Escherichia coli. ProP belongs to the major facilitator superfamily, whereas EctP, together with the betaine carrier, BetP, is a member of a newly established subfamily of the sodium/solute symporter superfamily. The constitutively expressed ectP codes for a 615-residue transporter. EctP preferred ectoine (Km, 63 microM) to betaine (Km, 333 microM) and proline (Km, 1,200 microM). Its activity was regulated by the external osmolality. The related betaine transporter, BetP, could be activated directly by altering the membrane state with local anesthetics, but this was not the case for EctP. Furthermore, the onset of osmotic activation was virtually instantaneous for BetP, whereas it took about 10 s for EctP.[1]


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