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Chemical Compound Review

Lopac-B-3501     carboxymethyl-trimethyl- azanium

Synonyms: CHEMBL95889, BSPBio_002550, KBioGR_001030, KBioSS_001744, CHEBI:41139, ...
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Disease relevance of Betaine hydrochloride


Psychiatry related information on Betaine hydrochloride

  • CONCLUSIONS: PK-PD modelling allows recommendations for optimal dosage of betaine in the treatment of homocystinuria, that have the potential for improved patient compliance and both therapeutic and pharmacoeconomic benefit [6].
  • In the renal cortex, only betaine content increased significantly (4.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.3 mmol/kg wet wt) after water deprivation [7].

High impact information on Betaine hydrochloride


Chemical compound and disease context of Betaine hydrochloride


Biological context of Betaine hydrochloride


Anatomical context of Betaine hydrochloride


Associations of Betaine hydrochloride with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Betaine hydrochloride

  • Nematodes homozygous for a phy-3 deletion are phenotypically of the wild type and fertile, but the 4-hydroxyproline content of phy-3(-/-) early embryos was reduced by about 90% [29].
  • On the other hand, the mscL disruption mutant retained 40% of internalized glycine betaine and was significantly compromised in its survival upon osmotic downshifts [30].
  • We cloned this locus into both low-copy-number lambda vectors and multicopy plasmids and demonstrated that these clones restore osmotically controlled synthesis of the periplasmic glycine betaine binding protein (GBBP) and the transport of glycine betaine in a delta (proU) strain [31].
  • Isolation and sequencing of Escherichia coli gene proP reveals unusual structural features of the osmoregulatory proline/betaine transporter, ProP [32].
  • This restoration of hepatocellular SAM:SAH ratio by betaine supplementation was associated with increases in the activity, enzyme mass and gene expression of the enzyme, betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), that remethylates homocysteine [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Betaine hydrochloride


  1. Betaine in the treatment of homocystinuria. Benevenga, N.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular biology of osmoregulation. Le Rudulier, D., Strom, A.R., Dandekar, A.M., Smith, L.T., Valentine, R.C. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Hepatocarcinogenesis by diethylnitrosamine in rats fed high dietary levels of lipotropes. Poirier, L.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Betaine decreases hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and liver injury in alcohol-fed mice. Ji, C., Kaplowitz, N. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The osmoreactive betaine carrier BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a sensor for cytoplasmic K+. Rübenhagen, R., Morbach, S., Krämer, R. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. An indirect response model of homocysteine suppression by betaine: optimising the dosage regimen of betaine in homocystinuria. Matthews, A., Johnson, T.N., Rostami-Hodjegan, A., Chakrapani, A., Wraith, J.E., Moat, S.J., Bonham, J.R., Tucker, G.T. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of organic osmolytes in avian renal medulla: a nonurea osmotic gradient system. Lien, Y.H., Pacelli, M.M., Braun, E.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Renal medullary organic osmolytes. Garcia-Perez, A., Burg, M.B. Physiol. Rev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Medium tonicity regulates expression of the Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent betaine transporter in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by increasing transcription of the transporter gene. Uchida, S., Yamauchi, A., Preston, A.S., Kwon, H.M., Handler, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Isolation of glycine betaine and proline betaine from human urine. Assessment of their role as osmoprotective agents for bacteria and the kidney. Chambers, S.T., Kunin, C.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Serotonin excites neurons in the human submucous plexus via 5-HT3 receptors. Michel, K., Zeller, F., Langer, R., Nekarda, H., Kruger, D., Dover, T.J., Brady, C.A., Barnes, N.M., Schemann, M. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Presence of a gene encoding choline sulfatase in Sinorhizobium meliloti bet operon: choline-O-sulfate is metabolized into glycine betaine. Osterås, M., Boncompagni, E., Vincent, N., Poggi, M.C., Le Rudulier, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. S-Adenosylmethionine and betaine correct hepatitis C virus induced inhibition of interferon signaling in vitro. Duong, F.H., Christen, V., Filipowicz, M., Heim, M.H. Hepatology (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Homocyst(e)ine: an important risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Duell, P.B., Malinow, M.R. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Glycine betaine fluxes in Lactobacillus plantarum during osmostasis and hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock. Glaasker, E., Konings, W.N., Poolman, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Two evolutionarily closely related ABC transporters mediate the uptake of choline for synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis. Kappes, R.M., Kempf, B., Kneip, S., Boch, J., Gade, J., Meier-Wagner, J., Bremer, E. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Overexpression of a Na+/H+ antiporter confers salt tolerance on a freshwater cyanobacterium, making it capable of growth in sea water. Waditee, R., Hibino, T., Nakamura, T., Incharoensakdi, A., Takabe, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular cloning of the alpha-subunit of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase: the complete cDNA-derived amino acid sequence and evidence for alternative splicing of RNA transcripts. Helaakoski, T., Vuori, K., Myllylä, R., Kivirikko, K.I., Pihlajaniemi, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. cAMP-independent role of PKA in tonicity-induced transactivation of tonicity-responsive enhancer/ osmotic response element-binding protein. Ferraris, J.D., Persaud, P., Williams, C.K., Chen, Y., Burg, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Two enzymes of diacylglyceryl-O-4'-(N,N,N,-trimethyl)homoserine biosynthesis are encoded by btaA and btaB in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Klug, R.M., Benning, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of betaine as an osmolyte in rat liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). Zhang, F., Warskulat, U., Wettstein, M., Häussinger, D. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Gene expression in visceral endoderm: a comparison of mutant and wild-type F9 embryonal carcinoma cell differentiation. Rogers, M.B., Watkins, S.C., Gudas, L.J. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Loss of NFAT5 results in renal atrophy and lack of tonicity-responsive gene expression. López-Rodríguez, C., Antos, C.L., Shelton, J.M., Richardson, J.A., Lin, F., Novobrantseva, T.I., Bronson, R.T., Igarashi, P., Rao, A., Olson, E.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. In vitro reconstitution of osmoregulated expression of proU of Escherichia coli. Ramirez, R.M., Prince, W.S., Bremer, E., Villarejo, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein, a rel-like protein that stimulates transcription in response to hypertonicity. Miyakawa, H., Woo, S.K., Dahl, S.C., Handler, J.S., Kwon, H.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Discovery of the ergothioneine transporter. Gründemann, D., Harlfinger, S., Golz, S., Geerts, A., Lazar, A., Berkels, R., Jung, N., Rubbert, A., Schömig, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Tyrosinase inhibition due to interaction of homocyst(e)ine with copper: the mechanism for reversible hypopigmentation in homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. Reish, O., Townsend, D., Berry, S.A., Tsai, M.Y., King, R.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Compatible organic osmolytes in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Weik, C., Warskulat, U., Bode, J., Peters-Regehr, T., Häussinger, D. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Egg shell collagen formation in Caenorhabditis elegans involves a novel prolyl 4-hydroxylase expressed in spermatheca and embryos and possessing many unique properties. Riihimaa, P., Nissi, R., Page, A.P., Winter, A.D., Keskiaho, K., Kivirikko, K.I., Myllyharju, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Lactococcus lactis uses MscL as its principal mechanosensitive channel. Folgering, J.H., Moe, P.C., Schuurman-Wolters, G.K., Blount, P., Poolman, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Cloned structural genes for the osmotically regulated binding-protein-dependent glycine betaine transport system (ProU) of Escherichia coli K-12. Faatz, E., Middendorf, A., Bremer, E. Mol. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Isolation and sequencing of Escherichia coli gene proP reveals unusual structural features of the osmoregulatory proline/betaine transporter, ProP. Culham, D.E., Lasby, B., Marangoni, A.G., Milner, J.L., Steer, B.A., van Nues, R.W., Wood, J.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Betaine attenuates alcoholic steatosis by restoring phosphatidylcholine generation via the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathway. Kharbanda, K.K., Mailliard, M.E., Baldwin, C.R., Beckenhauer, H.C., Sorrell, M.F., Tuma, D.J. J. Hepatol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Vitreous body collagen. Evidence for a dual origin from the neural retina and hyalocytes. Newsome, D.A., Linsenmayer, T.F., Trelstad, R.L. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  35. A novel mode of sensory transduction in archaea: binding protein-mediated chemotaxis towards osmoprotectants and amino acids. Kokoeva, M.V., Storch, K.F., Klein, C., Oesterhelt, D. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in the Canary Islands: a conformational disease due to I244T mutation in the P11L-containing alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. Santana, A., Salido, E., Torres, A., Shapiro, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Uniform amplification of a mixture of deoxyribonucleic acids with varying GC content. Baskaran, N., Kandpal, R.P., Bhargava, A.K., Glynn, M.W., Bale, A., Weissman, S.M. Genome Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Prevention of bile acid-induced apoptosis by betaine in rat liver. Graf, D., Kurz, A.K., Reinehr, R., Fischer, R., Kircheis, G., Häussinger, D. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
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