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Chemical Compound Review

glycine     2-aminoethanoic acid

Synonyms: Glycinum, Aciport, Amitone, Corilin, Glicina, ...
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Disease relevance of aminoacetic acid

  • These enzymes are formate dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli and several anaerobic bacteria, clostridial glycine reductase, mammalian and avian glutathione peroxidase, and nicotinic acid hydroxylase of Clostridium barkeri [1].
  • Glycine content was two to four times above normal in several brain regions, and brain glycine cleavage enzyme activity was absent in two patients dying of nonketotic hyperglycinemia [2].
  • We report here that the infection of soybean (Glycine max L.) roots with Rhizobium japonicum results in the synthesis by the plant of at least 18-20 polypeptides other than leghemoglobin during the development of root nodules [3].
  • Congenital myoclonus is a widespread neurologic disorder characterized by hyperexcitability, muscular spasticity and myoclonus associated with marked reduction in neural glycine binding sites [4].
  • This process mimics HIV immature particle formation and is dependent on myristoylation of the N-terminal glycine, as deletion of the latter results in particle accumulation in the cytoplasm and, interestingly, in the nucleus, pointing to a potential role of this non-fatty-acid-acylated species in the viral life cycle [5].

Psychiatry related information on aminoacetic acid

  • Glycine 699 is pivotal for the motor activity of skeletal muscle myosin [6].
  • This exceptional outcome may be related to the high residual activity of the mutant protein (32% of wild type) and therapeutic intervention during a critical period of heightened brain exposure and sensitivity to glycine [7].
  • Seven at risk members of a familial Alzheimer's disease pedigree associated with the amyloid precursor protein 717 valine to glycine mutation underwent serial MR scanning and neuropsychological assessments over 3 years [8].
  • The model peptide, (Pro-Pro-Gly)10, was also degraded by Cu(II)/H2O2, and a new N-terminal glycine was generated in proportion to the reaction time [9].
  • Preliminary findings indicate that the high glycine levels were present in patients who were depressed, manic, or in remission and were unaffected by electroshock therapy [10].

High impact information on aminoacetic acid


Chemical compound and disease context of aminoacetic acid


Biological context of aminoacetic acid


Anatomical context of aminoacetic acid

  • Mutagenesis of glycine 2 of p60src, the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), yields a protein that is neither myristylated nor bound to cellular membranes [24].
  • Glycine concentrations were measured in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of five patients in different types of hyperglycinemia to determine why severe neurologic deterioration is confined to the so-called nonketotic form of hyperglycinemia [2].
  • Glycine is an important inhibitory transmitter in the brainstem and spinal cord [25].
  • D-serine synthesis and release by astrocytes as an endogenous ligand for the "glycine" site of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors defy the concept that a neurotransmitter must be synthesized by neurons [26].
  • We recently performed a similar search in porcine pancreas and found a high concentration of a peptide having a glycine amide at its C-terminus [27].

Associations of aminoacetic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of aminoacetic acid

  • Here we describe a Glra1 missense mutation in spd that results in reduced agonist sensitivity in glycine receptors expressed in vitro [39].
  • These results provide evidence that Glrb is necessary for postsynaptic expression of glycine receptor complexes, and suggest Glrb as a candidate gene for inherited myoclonus in other species [4].
  • Using a positional candidate-gene approach, we determined the ttw phenotype is caused by a nonsense mutation (glycine 568 to stop) in the Npps gene which encodes nucleotide pyrophosphatase [40].
  • Excitatory glycine receptors containing the NR3 family of NMDA receptor subunits [41].
  • In contrast, these NR1/NR3A or -3B 'NMDARs' constitute a type of excitatory glycine receptor [41].
  • These findings demonstrate that integrity of the glycine co-agonist binding site is a functional checkpoint requisite for efficient cell surface trafficking of assembled NMDA receptors [42].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of aminoacetic acid

  • Ultrastructural studies have shown that the peripheral membrane protein gephyrin, which co-purifies with the postsynaptic inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) upon affinity chromatography, is situated on the cytoplasmic face of glycinergic postsynaptic membranes [43].
  • Moreover, local application of glycine and its antagonist strychnine by iontophoresis (through glass pipette electrodes, by means of an electric current) revealed that precisely timed glycine-controlled inhibition is a critical part of the mechanism by which the physiologically relevant range of ITDs is encoded in the MSO [44].
  • However, when the active-site residue arginine-106 of the Escherichia coli enzyme is replaced with a glycine through site-directed mutagenesis, the resultant mutant enzyme manifests substrate cooperativity that is absent in the wild-type enzyme [45].
  • Trace amounts of glycine, serine, and alanine were detected in the carbonate component of the martian meteorite ALH84001 by high-performance liquid chromatography [46].
  • Sequence analysis of atriopeptin I indicates that it is composed of 21 amino acids, of which serine and glycine residues predominate [47].


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  21. Mutations in the alpha 1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor cause the dominant neurologic disorder, hyperekplexia. Shiang, R., Ryan, S.G., Zhu, Y.Z., Hahn, A.F., O'Connell, P., Wasmuth, J.J. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
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