The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Arntl  -  aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Arnt3, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1, BMAL1b, Bmal1, Brain and muscle ARNT-like 1, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Arntl

  • Although little pathology is observed prior to 11 weeks of age, by 35 weeks of age essentially all Mop3 null animals develop joint ankylosis due to flowing ossification of ligaments and tendons and almost complete immobilization of weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing joints [1].
  • With the role of Clock and Bmal1 in fertility becoming clearer, it may be time to pursue the effect of polymorphisms in these genes in relation to the various types of infertility in humans [2].
  • Here we report that Bmal1(-/-) mice have reduced lifespans and display various symptoms of premature aging including sarcopenia, cataracts, less subcutaneous fat, organ shrinkage, and others [3].
  • Therefore, by a variety of criteria, we show that MOP3 has little if any role in the regulation of hypoxia responses in vivo [4].
  • In the present studies, MOP3 deficient mice had significantly reduced body weight and showed remarkable mortality around six months of age [5].

Psychiatry related information on Arntl

  • Additionally, locomotor activity in light-dark (LD) cycles is impaired and activity levels are reduced in Mop3-/- mice [6].
  • Deletion of the mammalian circadian clock gene BMAL1/Mop3 alters baseline sleep architecture and the response to sleep deprivation [7].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Mice homozygous for the BMAL1/Mop3 deletion showed an attenuated rhythm of sleep and wakefulness distribution across the 24-hr period [7].

High impact information on Arntl

  • Essentially, the activity of the transcription factors BMAL1 (also known as MOP3) and CLOCK is rhythmically counterbalanced by Period (PER) and Cryptochrome (CRY) proteins to govern time of day-dependent gene expression [8].
  • Here, we identify the orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha as the major regulator of cyclic Bmal1 transcription [9].
  • Bmal1 and Per transcription cycles display nearly opposite phases and are thus governed by different mechanisms [9].
  • These results provide genetic evidence that MOP3 is the bona fide heterodimeric partner of mCLOCK [6].
  • Here we show that loss of the PAS protein MOP3 (also known as BMAL1) in mice results in immediate and complete loss of circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Arntl

  • The bHLH/PAS factor MOP3 does not participate in hypoxia responses [4].

Biological context of Arntl

  • The aim of the study was to test whether mPer, mCry, Clock, and Bmal1 are rhythmically expressed in the mouse PT and how the absence of melatonin receptors affects clock gene expression [10].
  • The transcriptional activators BMAL1/MOP3 and CLOCK drive one loop by binding to E-box motifs in the regulatory regions of circadian target genes [11].
  • Molecularly, the biological clock is based on the transcriptional/translational feedback loop of clock genes (mPer, mCry, Clock, and Bmal1) [10].
  • Two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS-containing transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1 (MOP3), provide the basic drive to the system by activating transcription of negative regulators through E box enhancer elements [12].
  • These results indicate that RORalpha acts to promote Bmal1 transcription, thereby maintaining a robust circadian rhythm [13].

Anatomical context of Arntl

  • In cultured cells, loss of endogenous RORalpha protein resulted in a dampened circadian rhythm of Bmal1 transcription, further indicating that RORalpha is a functional component of the cell-autonomous core circadian clock [13].
  • Bmal1, another clock gene whose expression oscillates in other tissues, also shows constant expression levels in the testis [14].
  • The expression of clock-control genes, such as Bmal1 and Rev-erbalpha, also displays diurnal oscillations in the uterus, but not in bone [15].
  • This differentiation-dependent profile of clock gene expression was consistent with that observed in mouse mammary glands, as Per1 and Bmal1 mRNA levels were elevated in late pregnant and lactating mammary tissues, whereas Per2 expression was higher in proliferating virgin and early pregnant glands [16].
  • Arnt3 mRNA was expressed in brain, skeletal muscle, 13.5-day embryos, and P19 cells treated with retinoic acid [17].

Associations of Arntl with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Arntl

  • Here we show that Rev-erbalpha dramatically represses the basal activity of the mouse Bmal1 gene promoter via two monomeric binding sites, both of which are required for repression and are conserved between mouse and human [21].

Other interactions of Arntl

  • Clock and Bmal1 are essential transcription factors that drive the expression of three period genes (Per1-3) and two cryptochrome genes (Cry1 and Cry2) [22].
  • Positive involvement of RORalpha in generation of the Bmal1 circadian oscillation was verified by behavioral analyses of RORalpha-deficient staggerer mice that showed aberrant locomotor activity and unstable rhythmicity [13].
  • We found that expression of Bmal1 and Cry1 was higher at 1300 h, or zeitgeber time 6, whereas expression of Per1 was higher at 0100 h (zeitgeber time 18) [23].
  • The phase of Per2 and Bmal1 expression remained unchanged regardless of feeding condition [24].
  • Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1; also known as MOP3 or Arnt3) is a transcription factor known to regulate circadian rhythm [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Arntl

  • DESIGN: In mice with targeted deletion of the BMAL1/Mop3 gene, EEG/EMG sleep-wake patterns were recorded under entrained and free-running conditions as well as following acute (6-hrs) sleep deprivation [7].
  • However, gel-shift analysis shows that the cooperative effect of HIF-1alpha and CLOCK results in MOP3 binding, but does not involve heterodimerization of HIF-1alpha/CLOCK, at E-box A [20].
  • Flow cytometry analysis showed the levels of pre-B cells in bone marrow of MOP3(-/-) mice were similar as that in control mice [26].
  • Adoptive transfer of MOP3(-/-) bone marrow cells (BMC) to lethally irradiated BALB/c Rag2(-/-) recipients, normal T and B cell development was observed, whereas Adoptive transfer of BALB/c BMC to lethally irradiated MOP3(-/-) recipients, B-cell development was significantly impaired [26].


  1. Progressive arthropathy in mice with a targeted disruption of the Mop3/Bmal-1 locus. Bunger, M.K., Walisser, J.A., Sullivan, R., Manley, P.A., Moran, S.M., Kalscheur, V.L., Colman, R.J., Bradfield, C.A. Genesis (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Circadian rhythms and reproduction. Boden, M.J., Kennaway, D.J. Reproduction (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Early aging and age-related pathologies in mice deficient in BMAL1, the core componentof the circadian clock. Kondratov, R.V., Kondratova, A.A., Gorbacheva, V.Y., Vykhovanets, O.V., Antoch, M.P. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. The bHLH/PAS factor MOP3 does not participate in hypoxia responses. Cowden, K.D., Simon, M.C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The mortality of MOP3 deficient mice with a systemic functional failure. Sun, Y., Yang, Z., Niu, Z., Wang, W., Peng, J., Li, Q., Ma, M.Y., Zhao, Y. J. Biomed. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Mop3 is an essential component of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals. Bunger, M.K., Wilsbacher, L.D., Moran, S.M., Clendenin, C., Radcliffe, L.A., Hogenesch, J.B., Simon, M.C., Takahashi, J.S., Bradfield, C.A. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Deletion of the mammalian circadian clock gene BMAL1/Mop3 alters baseline sleep architecture and the response to sleep deprivation. Laposky, A., Easton, A., Dugovic, C., Walisser, J., Bradfield, C., Turek, F. Sleep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Rhythmic CLOCK-BMAL1 binding to multiple E-box motifs drives circadian Dbp transcription and chromatin transitions. Ripperger, J.A., Schibler, U. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha controls circadian transcription within the positive limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator. Preitner, N., Damiola, F., Lopez-Molina, L., Zakany, J., Duboule, D., Albrecht, U., Schibler, U. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Melatonin plays a crucial role in the regulation of rhythmic clock gene expression in the mouse pars tuberalis. VON Gall, C., Weaver, D.R., Moek, J., Jilg, A., Stehle, J.H., Korf, H.W. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Mapping of binding regions for the circadian regulators BMAL1 and CLOCK within the mouse Rev-erbalpha gene. Ripperger, J.A. Chronobiol. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Light does not degrade the constitutively expressed BMAL1 protein in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. von Gall, C., Noton, E., Lee, C., Weaver, D.R. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha regulates circadian transcription of the mammalian core-clock Bmal1. Akashi, M., Takumi, T. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. No circadian rhythms in testis: Period1 expression is clock independent and developmentally regulated in the mouse. Morse, D., Cermakian, N., Brancorsini, S., Parvinen, M., Sassone-Corsi, P. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of the orphan nuclear receptor ERRalpha is under circadian regulation in estrogen-responsive tissues. Horard, B., Rayet, B., Triqueneaux, G., Laudet, V., Delaunay, F., Vanacker, J.M. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Circadian clock and cell cycle gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cells and in the developing mouse mammary gland. Metz, R.P., Qu, X., Laffin, B., Earnest, D., Porter, W.W. Dev. Dyn. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Transcriptionally active heterodimer formation of an Arnt-like PAS protein, Arnt3, with HIF-1a, HLF, and clock. Takahata, S., Sogawa, K., Kobayashi, A., Ema, M., Mimura, J., Ozaki, N., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. BMAL1 and CLOCK, two essential components of the circadian clock, are involved in glucose homeostasis. Rudic, R.D., McNamara, P., Curtis, A.M., Boston, R.C., Panda, S., Hogenesch, J.B., Fitzgerald, G.A. PLoS Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha is a critical lithium-sensitive component of the circadian clock. Yin, L., Wang, J., Klein, P.S., Lazar, M.A. Science (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Cross-talk between hypoxic and circadian pathways: cooperative roles for hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and CLOCK in transcriptional activation of the vasopressin gene. Ghorbel, M.T., Coulson, J.M., Murphy, D. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The orphan nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha recruits the N-CoR/histone deacetylase 3 corepressor to regulate the circadian Bmal1 gene. Yin, L., Lazar, M.A. Mol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Rhythmic histone acetylation underlies transcription in the mammalian circadian clock. Etchegaray, J.P., Lee, C., Wade, P.A., Reppert, S.M. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Twenty-four-hour rhythmic gene expression in the rhesus macaque adrenal gland. Lemos, D.R., Downs, J.L., Urbanski, H.F. Mol. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Feeding cues alter clock gene oscillations and photic responses in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of mice exposed to a light/dark cycle. Mendoza, J., Graff, C., Dardente, H., Pevet, P., Challet, E. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1), a component of the molecular clock, regulates adipogenesis. Shimba, S., Ishii, N., Ohta, Y., Ohno, T., Watabe, Y., Hayashi, M., Wada, T., Aoyagi, T., Tezuka, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. MOP3, a component of the molecular clock, regulates the development of B cells. Sun, Y., Yang, Z., Niu, Z., Peng, J., Li, Q., Xiong, W., Langnas, A.N., Ma, M.Y., Zhao, Y. Immunology (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities