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Gene Review

SPR1  -  protein SPIRAL1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: F19B11.13, F19B11_13, SKU6, SPIRAL1
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High impact information on SPR1

  • These observations suggest that SPR1 is involved in microtubule polymerization dynamics and/or guidance, which in turn influences touch-induced directional cell expansion and axial twisting [1].
  • Characterization of the mutant phenotypes suggested that SPR1 may control anisotropic cell expansion through MT-dependent processes [2].
  • We propose that a microtubule-dependent process and SPR1/SPR2 act antagonistically to control directional cell elongation by preventing elongating cells from potential twisting [3].
  • Expression analyses revealed that SPR1 and SP1L genes are transcribed in partially overlapping tissues [4].
  • These observations suggest that SPR1 and SP1Ls act redundantly in maintaining the cortical MT organization essential for anisotropic cell growth, and that the helical growth phenotype of spr1 results from a partially compromised state of cortical MTs [4].

Biological context of SPR1

  • The spr1spr2 double mutant's phenotype is synergistic, suggesting that SPR1 and SPR2 act on a similar process but in separate pathways in controlling cell elongation [3].

Associations of SPR1 with chemical compounds

  • The touch-dependent sku6 root skewing phenotype is suppressed by the antimicrotubule drugs propyzamide and oryzalin, and right skewing is exacerbated by cold treatment [1].
  • Root expansion studies also showed that the botero and spiral1 mutants were hypersensitive to latrunculin B [5].

Regulatory relationships of SPR1

  • The effects of sos1 in suppressing spiral1 defects and in causing abnormal drug responses were nullified in the presence of the hkt1 Na(+) influx carrier mutation in roots but not in hypocotyls [6].

Other interactions of SPR1


  1. The Arabidopsis sku6/spiral1 gene encodes a plus end-localized microtubule-interacting protein involved in directional cell expansion. Sedbrook, J.C., Ehrhardt, D.W., Fisher, S.E., Scheible, W.R., Somerville, C.R. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. SPIRAL1 encodes a plant-specific microtubule-localized protein required for directional control of rapidly expanding Arabidopsis cells. Nakajima, K., Furutani, I., Tachimoto, H., Matsubara, H., Hashimoto, T. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The SPIRAL genes are required for directional control of cell elongation in Aarabidopsis thaliana. Furutani, I., Watanabe, Y., Prieto, R., Masukawa, M., Suzuki, K., Naoi, K., Thitamadee, S., Shikanai, T., Hashimoto, T. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of the SPIRAL1 Gene Family in Anisotropic Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. Nakajima, K., Kawamura, T., Hashimoto, T. Plant Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Hypersensitivity to cytoskeletal antagonists demonstrates microtubule-microfilament cross-talk in the control of root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collings, D.A., Lill, A.W., Himmelspach, R., Wasteneys, G.O. New Phytol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Salt stress affects cortical microtubule organization and helical growth in Arabidopsis. Shoji, T., Suzuki, K., Abe, T., Kaneko, Y., Shi, H., Zhu, J.K., Rus, A., Hasegawa, P.M., Hashimoto, T. Plant Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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