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Disease relevance of Hypocotyl


High impact information on Hypocotyl

  • Overexpression of the cytochrome P450 results in enhanced hypocotyl growth even in the light, which phenocopies the etiolated hypocotyls [4].
  • The morphology of the hookless hypocotyl is phenocopied by inhibitors of auxin transport or by high levels of endogenous or exogenous auxin [5].
  • COP1, when fused to beta-glucuronidase (GUS), is enriched in the nucleus in darkness, but not in the light, in hypocotyl cells of Arabidopsis seedlings and epidermal cells of onion bulbs [6].
  • In contrast, seedlings grown in darkness become etiolated, with elongated hypocotyls and dosed cotyledons on an apical hook [7].
  • The hy4 mutant is one of several mutants that are selectively insensitive to blue light during the blue-light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation response, which suggests that they lack an essential component of the cryptochrome-associated light-sensing pathway [8].

Biological context of Hypocotyl


Anatomical context of Hypocotyl


Associations of Hypocotyl with chemical compounds

  • Among plant growth factors involved in the control of hypocotyl elongation (auxin, gibberellins and ethylene) none significantly influenced KOR-mRNA levels [19].
  • SAc3 and SAc7 genes appear to be more highly expressed in shoot and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-induced hypocotyl than in root and hypocotyl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[20]
  • In wild-type seedlings, sucrose repressed the far-red light-induced cotyledon opening and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. sun7 seedlings showed reduced repression of these responses [21].
  • Studies with PHO1 promoter-beta-glucuronidase constructs reveal predominant expression of the PHO1 promoter in the stelar cells of the root and the lower part of the hypocotyl [22].
  • This mutant exhibited hypersensitive induction of CAB1, CAB2, and the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RBCS) promoters in the very low fluence range of red light and a hypersensitive response in hypocotyl growth in continuous red light of higher fluences [23].

Gene context of Hypocotyl

  • We show that FHY1 is a novel light-regulated protein that accumulates in dark (D)-grown but not in FR-grown hypocotyl cells [24].
  • However, phenotypic analysis of transgenic seedlings suggested that the constitutively nuclear-localized WD-40 repeat domain was able to mimic aspects of COP1 function, as indicated by exaggerated hypocotyl elongation under light conditions [25].
  • Long Hypocotyl in Far-Red 1 (HFR1), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is required for both phytochrome A-mediated far-red and cryptochrome 1-mediated blue light signaling [26].
  • The blue light receptor NPH1 (for nonphototropic hypocotyl) has been considered to be the only UV-A/blue light receptor that induces a phototropic response by the hypocotyl and root of Arabidopsis [27].
  • Gain-of-function mutations in SHY2/IAA3 cause enlarged cotyledons, short hypocotyls, and altered auxin-regulated root development [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hypocotyl

  • Complementation tests with various long hypocotyl (hy) mutants indicated that CR88 identifies a new HY locus [29].
  • The auxin-regulated expression of two poly(A)+ mRNAs in soybean hypocotyl was demonstrated by cloning of the cDNAs and Northern blot hybridization analyses (Walker, J.C., and Key, J.L. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 7185-7189) [30].
  • Stomata formation in the hypocotyl is induced by the treatment with either GA or ethylene [31].
  • The measurements of melatonin and IAA in lupin hypocotyls by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, and their identification by tandem mass spectrometry, point to a different distribution of these molecules in etiolated hypocotyls [32].
  • The expression of a maturation-associated gene, Mat1, was induced in both cotyledons and hypocotyl/radicle tissues of somatic embryos after 72 h desiccation [33].


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  2. Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 is a soluble protein mediating blue light-dependent regulation of plant growth and development. Lin, C., Ahmad, M., Cashmore, A.R. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Purification, cDNA cloning and Northern-blot analysis of mitochondrial chaperonin 60 from pumpkin cotyledons. Tsugeki, R., Mori, H., Nishimura, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Light and brassinosteroid signals are integrated via a dark-induced small G protein in etiolated seedling growth. Kang, J.G., Yun, J., Kim, D.H., Chung, K.S., Fujioka, S., Kim, J.I., Dae, H.W., Yoshida, S., Takatsuto, S., Song, P.S., Park, C.M. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. HOOKLESS1, an ethylene response gene, is required for differential cell elongation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Lehman, A., Black, R., Ecker, J.R. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Light inactivation of Arabidopsis photomorphogenic repressor COP1 involves a cell-specific regulation of its nucleocytoplasmic partitioning. von Arnim, A.G., Deng, X.W. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Targeted destabilization of HY5 during light-regulated development of Arabidopsis. Osterlund, M.T., Hardtke, C.S., Wei, N., Deng, X.W. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. HY4 gene of A. thaliana encodes a protein with characteristics of a blue-light photoreceptor. Ahmad, M., Cashmore, A.R. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. HFR1 encodes an atypical bHLH protein that acts in phytochrome A signal transduction. Fairchild, C.D., Schumaker, M.A., Quail, P.H. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Developmental specificity of auxin response by pairs of ARF and Aux/IAA transcriptional regulators. Weijers, D., Benkova, E., Jäger, K.E., Schlereth, A., Hamann, T., Kientz, M., Wilmoth, J.C., Reed, J.W., Jürgens, G. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The Dof transcription factor OBP3 modulates phytochrome and cryptochrome signaling in Arabidopsis. Ward, J.M., Cufr, C.A., Denzel, M.A., Neff, M.M. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. SGR2, a phospholipase-like protein, and ZIG/SGR4, a SNARE, are involved in the shoot gravitropism of Arabidopsis. Kato, T., Morita, M.T., Fukaki, H., Yamauchi, Y., Uehara, M., Niihama, M., Tasaka, M. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression and stability of Arabidopsis CDC6 are associated with endoreplication. Castellano, M.M., del Pozo, J.C., Ramirez-Parra, E., Brown, S., Gutierrez, C. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Blue light-directed destabilization of the pea Lhcb1*4 transcript depends on sequences within the 5' untranslated region. Anderson, M.B., Folta, K., Warpeha, K.M., Gibbons, J., Gao, J., Kaufman, L.S. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. The Arabidopsis TUBULIN-FOLDING COFACTOR A gene is involved in the control of the alpha/beta-tubulin monomer balance. Kirik, V., Grini, P.E., Mathur, J., Klinkhammer, I., Adler, K., Bechtold, N., Herzog, M., Bonneville, J.M., Hülskamp, M. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential scanning calorimetry of plant cell walls. Lin, L.S., Yuen, H.K., Varner, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Biochemical, immunological, and immunocytochemical evidence for the association of chalcone synthase with endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Hrazdina, G., Zobel, A.M., Hoch, H.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of a beta-type adaptin in plant clathrin-coated vesicles. Holstein, S.E., Drucker, M., Robinson, D.G. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. A plasma membrane-bound putative endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase is required for normal wall assembly and cell elongation in Arabidopsis. Nicol, F., His, I., Jauneau, A., Vernhettes, S., Canut, H., Höfte, H. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Divergence and differential expression of soybean actin genes. Hightower, R.C., Meagher, R.B. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Sucrose control of phytochrome A signaling in Arabidopsis. Dijkwel, P.P., Huijser, C., Weisbeek, P.J., Chua, N.H., Smeekens, S.C. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis PHO1 gene involved in phosphate loading to the xylem. Hamburger, D., Rezzonico, E., MacDonald-Comber Petétot, J., Somerville, C., Poirier, Y. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. An Arabidopsis mutant hypersensitive to red and far-red light signals. Genoud, T., Millar, A.J., Nishizawa, N., Kay, S.A., Schäfer, E., Nagatani, A., Chua, N.H. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. FHY1: a phytochrome A-specific signal transducer. Desnos, T., Puente, P., Whitelam, G.C., Harberd, N.P. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Discrete domains mediate the light-responsive nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of Arabidopsis COP1. Stacey, M.G., Hicks, S.N., von Arnim, A.G. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Light regulates COP1-mediated degradation of HFR1, a transcription factor essential for light signaling in Arabidopsis. Yang, J., Lin, R., Sullivan, J., Hoecker, U., Liu, B., Xu, L., Deng, X.W., Wang, H. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. RPT2. A signal transducer of the phototropic response in Arabidopsis. Sakai, T., Wada, T., Ishiguro, S., Okada, K. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Arabidopsis SHY2/IAA3 inhibits auxin-regulated gene expression. Tian, Q., Uhlir, N.J., Reed, J.W. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. A chlorate-resistant mutant defective in the regulation of nitrate reductase gene expression in Arabidopsis defines a new HY locus. Lin, Y., Cheng, C.L. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Sequence and characterization of two auxin-regulated genes from soybean. Ainley, W.M., Walker, J.C., Nagao, R.T., Key, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Growth and stomata development of Arabidopsis hypocotyls are controlled by gibberellins and modulated by ethylene and auxins. Saibo, N.J., Vriezen, W.H., Beemster, G.T., Van Der Straeten, D. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Melatonin: a growth-stimulating compound present in lupin tissues. Hernández-Ruiz, J., Cano, A., Arnao, M.B. Planta (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Expression of desiccation-induced and lipoxygenase genes during the transition from the maturation to the germination phases in soybean somatic embryos. Liu, W., Hildebrand, D.F., Moore, P.J., Collins, G.B. Planta (1994) [Pubmed]
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