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Gene Review

TSF  -  protein TWIN SISTER of FT

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: F9F13.20, F9F13_20, TWIN SISTER OF FT
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High impact information on TSF

  • These observations suggest that TSF is a direct regulatory target of CO. tsf mutation delayed flowering in SD conditions and enhanced the phenotype of ft in both LD and SD conditions [1].
  • TSF expression was induced rapidly upon activation of CONSTANS (CO) [1].
  • Consistently, TSF overexpression caused a precocious flowering phenotype independent of photoperiods or CO, or FLC [1].
  • The mRNA levels of TSF and FT showed similar patterns of diurnal oscillation and response to photoperiods: an evening peak, higher levels in long day (LD) than in short day (SD) conditions, and immediate up-regulation upon day-length extension [1].


  1. TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) acts as a floral pathway integrator redundantly with FT. Yamaguchi, A., Kobayashi, Y., Goto, K., Abe, M., Araki, T. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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