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Disease relevance of Photoperiod


Psychiatry related information on Photoperiod


High impact information on Photoperiod

  • The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in photic regulations of various kinds, including adaptation to light intensity, daily changes of light and darkness, and seasonal changes of photoperiod lengths [10].
  • The onset of flowering is promoted by long photoperiods, but the constans (co) mutant flowers later than wild type under these conditions [11].
  • Here we describe the gene EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), which is involved in photoperiod perception and circadian regulation [12].
  • Loss of FT causes delay in flowering, whereas overexpression of FT results in precocious flowering independent of CO or photoperiod [13].
  • Flowering in cry2/fha mutant plants is only incompletely responsive to photoperiod [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Photoperiod


Biological context of Photoperiod


Anatomical context of Photoperiod


Associations of Photoperiod with chemical compounds

  • The interactions among luteinizing hormone, gonadal steroids, and the photoperiod seem to set the appropriate conditions for neural processes triggering a complete and normal release of luteinizing hormone [30].
  • In each family the characteristics of diapause differ, and the specific controls vary widely from lactational to seasonal, from estrogen to progesterone, or from photoperiod to nutritional [31].
  • This robust Ca(2+) flux likely plays regulatory roles in the sensing of both light/dark transitions and photoperiod [32].
  • Once critical weight is reached, juvenile hormone (JH) titers decline, resulting in the release of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) at the next photoperiod gate and thereby inducing metamorphosis [33].
  • Removal of the olfactory bulbs of male golden hamsters results in a marked increase in tonic gonadotropin, prolactin and testosterone secretion which counteracts inhibitory effects of manipulations such as maintenance on short photoperiod, food restriction or treatment with gonadal steroids [34].

Gene context of Photoperiod

  • Interestingly, AGL20 expression is positively regulated not only by the redundant vernalization and autonomous pathways of flowering but also by the photoperiod pathway [35].
  • We found that Vip(-/-) and Vipr2(-/-) mice showed two daily bouts of activity in a skeleton photoperiod and multiple circadian periods in constant darkness [36].
  • Null mutations in ARP6 caused numerous defects, including altered development of the leaf, inflorescence, and flower as well as reduced female fertility and early flowering in both long- and short-day photoperiods [37].
  • Surprisingly, the phyA cry1 cry2 triple mutant flowered earlier and showed better response to photoperiod than the cry1 cry2 double mutant, indicating that phyA is involved in light repression of flowering [38].
  • High training activity and a dark photoperiod appeared to independently suppress ovarian activity and were not associated with chronic changes in anterior pituitary hormone or SHBG concentrations [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Photoperiod

  • The results reported herein of "skeleton photoperiod" experiments indicate that the efficacy of phototherapy may not depend on its timing or its effect on melatonin secretion [40].
  • Serum gonadotropin concentrations increased following castration in both long and short photoperiods, but gonadotropin secretion was inhibited by much smaller doses of testosterone in the males maintained on the short photoperiod as compared to males kept on a long photoperiod [41].
  • Melatonin was measured over 24 hr in the eyestalks of Uca pugilator by means of radioimmunoassay; crabs were acclimatized either to a LD 12:12 photoperiod or constant darkness [42].
  • Twenty-one-day-old female BALBc mice were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of aMT (200 micrograms) or diluent, 3 hr before the onset of darkness (photoperiod LD 12:12) [43].
  • To exclude the possibility that the lesion to the MBH prevented gonadal regression through disruption of nocturnal melatonin production, MBH-X animals were switched to a long day photoperiod, pinealectomized, and fitted with a sc cannula for the infusion of either melatonin (500 ng/10 h) or saline (50 microliters/h) once daily for 6 weeks [29].


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  11. The CONSTANS gene of Arabidopsis promotes flowering and encodes a protein showing similarities to zinc finger transcription factors. Putterill, J., Robson, F., Lee, K., Simon, R., Coupland, G. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. The ELF4 gene controls circadian rhythms and flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Doyle, M.R., Davis, S.J., Bastow, R.M., McWatters, H.G., Kozma-Bognár, L., Nagy, F., Millar, A.J., Amasino, R.M. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
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  14. Regulation of flowering time by Arabidopsis photoreceptors. Guo, H., Yang, H., Mockler, T.C., Lin, C. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
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  17. Hypothalamic responses to peripheral glucose infusion in food-restricted sheep are influenced by photoperiod. Archer, Z.A., Rhind, S.M., Findlay, P.A., Kyle, C.E., Barber, M.C., Adam, C.L. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Delayed puberty in the male Djungarian hamster: effect of short photoperiod or melatonin treatment on the GnRH neuronal system. Buchanan, K.L., Yellon, S.M. Neuroendocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of photoperiod on growth, carcass composition, prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in prepubertal and postpubertal Holstein heifers. Zinn, S.A., Purchas, R.W., Chapin, L.T., Petitclerc, D., Merkel, R.A., Bergen, W.G., Tucker, H.A. J. Anim. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Thylakoid membrane biogenesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 137+. II. Cell-cycle variations in the synthesis and assembly of pigment. Janero, D.R., Barrnett, R. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Hd1, a major photoperiod sensitivity quantitative trait locus in rice, is closely related to the Arabidopsis flowering time gene CONSTANS. Yano, M., Katayose, Y., Ashikari, M., Yamanouchi, U., Monna, L., Fuse, T., Baba, T., Yamamoto, K., Umehara, Y., Nagamura, Y., Sasaki, T. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Decoding photoperiodic time through Per1 and ICER gene amplitude. Messager, S., Ross, A.W., Barrett, P., Morgan, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Hypothalamic gene expression in reproductively photoresponsive and photorefractory Siberian hamsters. Prendergast, B.J., Mosinger, B., Kolattukudy, P.E., Nelson, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Phytochrome-mediated photoperiod perception, shoot growth, glutamine, calcium, and protein phosphorylation influence the activity of the poplar bark storage protein gene promoter (bspA). Zhu, B., Coleman, G.D. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  28. The shoot apical meristem restores its symplasmic organization during chilling-induced release from dormancy. Rinne, P.L., Kaikuranta, P.M., van der Schoot, C. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Lesions of the iodomelatonin-binding sites of the mediobasal hypothalamus spare the lactotropic, but block the gonadotropic response of male Syrian hamsters to short photoperiod and to melatonin. Maywood, E.S., Hastings, M.H. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Progesterone administration in vivo stimulates release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in vitro. Ramirez, V.D., Dluzen, D., Lin, D. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
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  32. Dark-stimulated calcium ion fluxes in the chloroplast stroma and cytosol. Sai, J., Johnson, C.H. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. The role of the prothoracic gland in determining critical weight for metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Mirth, C., Truman, J.W., Riddiford, L.M. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Neural pathway from the olfactory bulbs regulating tonic gonadotropin secretion. Pieper, D.R., Newman, S.W. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. The AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 MADS domain protein integrates floral inductive pathways in Arabidopsis. Lee, H., Suh, S.S., Park, E., Cho, E., Ahn, J.H., Kim, S.G., Lee, J.S., Kwon, Y.M., Lee, I. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates circadian rhythmicity and synchrony in mammalian clock neurons. Aton, S.J., Colwell, C.S., Harmar, A.J., Waschek, J., Herzog, E.D. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. The nuclear actin-related protein ARP6 is a pleiotropic developmental regulator required for the maintenance of FLOWERING LOCUS C expression and repression of flowering in Arabidopsis. Deal, R.B., Kandasamy, M.K., McKinney, E.C., Meagher, R.B. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Hierarchical coupling of phytochromes and cryptochromes reconciles stability and light modulation of Arabidopsis development. Mazzella, M.A., Cerdán, P.D., Staneloni, R.J., Casal, J.J. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Physical exercise-induced changes and season-associated differences in the pituitary-ovarian function of runners and joggers. Ronkainen, H., Pakarinen, A., Kirkinen, P., Kauppila, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1985) [Pubmed]
  40. Phototherapy of seasonal affective disorder. Time of day and suppression of melatonin are not critical for antidepressant effects. Wehr, T.A., Jacobsen, F.M., Sack, D.A., Arendt, J., Tamarkin, L., Rosenthal, N.E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1986) [Pubmed]
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  42. Melatonin cycle in the fiddler crab Uca pugilator and influence of melatonin on limb regeneration. Tilden, A.R., Rasmussen, P., Awantang, R.M., Furlan, S., Goldstein, J., Palsgrove, M., Sauer, A. J. Pineal Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
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