The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review


Arabidopsis thaliana

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

High impact information on FLC

  • Two functionally distinct PHYC haplotype groups are distributed in a latitudinal cline dependent on FRIGIDA, a locus that together with FLOWERING LOCUS C explains a large portion of the variation in A. thaliana flowering time [1].
  • Here, we report that A. thaliana LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1) is necessary to maintain the epigenetically repressed state of FLC upon return to warm conditions typical of spring [2].
  • We conclude that FVE participates in a protein complex repressing FLC transcription through a histone deacetylation mechanism [3].
  • The vernalization and autonomous pathways converge on the negative regulation of FLC, a gene encoding a MADS-box protein that inhibits flowering [3].
  • FVE interacted with retinoblastoma protein in immunoprecipitation assays, and FLC chromatin was enriched in acetylated histones in fve mutants [3].

Biological context of FLC


Associations of FLC with chemical compounds

  • Our results suggest that during the prolonged cold, VRN5 and VIN3 form a heterodimer necessary for establishing the vernalization-induced chromatin modifications, histone deacetylation, and H3 lysine 27 trimethylation required for the epigenetic silencing of FLC [8].
  • A screen for mutants in which a winter-annual Arabidopsis is converted to a rapid-cycling type has identified a putative histone H3 methyl transferase that is required for FLC expression [9].

Physical interactions of FLC

  • These data are consistent with a model in which SUF4 may act to specifically recruit EFS and the PAF1-like complex to the FLC locus [5].
  • We found that ATX1 directly binds the active FLC locus before flowering and that this interaction is released upon the transition to flowering [10].

Regulatory relationships of FLC

  • Although many aspects of FLC regulation have been reported, it is not known how FLC is transcriptionally activated by FRI at the molecular level [7].
  • Consistent with a proposed role as a direct activator of FLC, VIP4 is expressed throughout the plant in a pattern similar to that of FLC [11].
  • We show that in transgenic plants overexpressing CO and FLC, these proteins regulate flowering time antagonistically and FLC blocks transcriptional activation of SOC1 by CO [12].
  • SOC1 is directly activated by CONSTANS (CO) in long photoperiods and is repressed by FLC, a component of the vernalization (low-temperature) pathway [12].
  • These observations demonstrate that FLK regulates the autonomous flowering pathway via FLC [13].

Other interactions of FLC

  • LHP1, the Arabidopsis homologue of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, is required for epigenetic silencing of FLC [14].
  • Nonadditive regulation of FRI and FLC loci mediates flowering-time variation in Arabidopsis allopolyploids [6].
  • One sub-pathway involves FCA and FY, which interact to regulate RNA processing of FLC [15].
  • Epistasis analyses revealed that AGL19 works in the poorly characterized FLC-independent vernalization pathway and does not require SOC1 to function [16].
  • Previous work has shown that the Landsberg erecta allele of FLC, which is not a null allele, is able to partially suppress the late-flowering phenotype of FRIGIDA and mutations in the autonomous pathway [17].
  • These data support a close association of FCA and FLD in mediating H3K4 demethylation and thus transcriptional silencing of FLC and reveal roles for antisense RNA processing and DCL3 function in this regulation [18].
  • FRI mediates WDR5a enrichment at the FLC locus, leading to increased H3K4me3 and FLC upregulation [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FLC


  1. The PHYTOCHROME C photoreceptor gene mediates natural variation in flowering and growth responses of Arabidopsis thaliana. Balasubramanian, S., Sureshkumar, S., Agrawal, M., Michael, T.P., Wessinger, C., Maloof, J.N., Clark, R., Warthmann, N., Chory, J., Weigel, D. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Epigenetic maintenance of the vernalized state in Arabidopsis thaliana requires LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1. Sung, S., He, Y., Eshoo, T.W., Tamada, Y., Johnson, L., Nakahigashi, K., Goto, K., Jacobsen, S.E., Amasino, R.M. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of flowering time by FVE, a retinoblastoma-associated protein. Ausín, I., Alonso-Blanco, C., Jarillo, J.A., Ruiz-García, L., Martínez-Zapater, J.M. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Prevention of early flowering by expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C requires methylation of histone H3 K36. Zhao, Z., Yu, Y., Meyer, D., Wu, C., Shen, W.H. Nat. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. SUPPRESSOR OF FRI 4 encodes a nuclear-localized protein that is required for delayed flowering in winter-annual Arabidopsis. Kim, S.Y., Michaels, S.D. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Nonadditive regulation of FRI and FLC loci mediates flowering-time variation in Arabidopsis allopolyploids. Wang, J., Tian, L., Lee, H.S., Chen, Z.J. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. SUPPRESSOR OF FRIGIDA4, Encoding a C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein, Represses Flowering by Transcriptional Activation of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C. Kim, S., Choi, K., Park, C., Hwang, H.J., Lee, I. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The PHD Finger Protein VRN5 Functions in the Epigenetic Silencing of Arabidopsis FLC. Greb, T., Mylne, J.S., Crevillen, P., Geraldo, N., An, H., Gendall, A.R., Dean, C. Curr. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Establishment of the vernalization-responsive, winter-annual habit in Arabidopsis requires a putative histone H3 methyl transferase. Kim, S.Y., He, Y., Jacob, Y., Noh, Y.S., Michaels, S., Amasino, R. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX1 dynamically regulates FLOWERING LOCUS C activation via histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation. Pien, S., Fleury, D., Mylne, J.S., Crevillen, P., Inzé, D., Avramova, Z., Dean, C., Grossniklaus, U. Plant. Cell (2008) [Pubmed]
  11. The VERNALIZATION INDEPENDENCE 4 gene encodes a novel regulator of FLOWERING LOCUS C. Zhang, H., van Nocker, S. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Antagonistic regulation of flowering-time gene SOC1 by CONSTANS and FLC via separate promoter motifs. Hepworth, S.R., Valverde, F., Ravenscroft, D., Mouradov, A., Coupland, G. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A new Arabidopsis gene, FLK, encodes an RNA binding protein with K homology motifs and regulates flowering time via FLOWERING LOCUS C. Lim, M.H., Kim, J., Kim, Y.S., Chung, K.S., Seo, Y.H., Lee, I., Kim, J., Hong, C.B., Kim, H.J., Park, C.M. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. LHP1, the Arabidopsis homologue of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, is required for epigenetic silencing of FLC. Mylne, J.S., Barrett, L., Tessadori, F., Mesnage, S., Johnson, L., Bernatavichute, Y.V., Jacobsen, S.E., Fransz, P., Dean, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Additional targets of the Arabidopsis autonomous pathway members, FCA and FY. Marquardt, S., Boss, P., Hadfield, J., Dean, C. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Polycomb-group proteins repress the floral activator AGL19 in the FLC-independent vernalization pathway. Schönrock, N., Bouveret, R., Leroy, O., Borghi, L., Köhler, C., Gruissem, W., Hennig, L. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Loss of FLOWERING LOCUS C activity eliminates the late-flowering phenotype of FRIGIDA and autonomous pathway mutations but not responsiveness to vernalization. Michaels, S.D., Amasino, R.M. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. The Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein FCA requires a lysine-specific demethylase 1 homolog to downregulate FLC. Liu, F., Quesada, V., Crevillén, P., Bäurle, I., Swiezewski, S., Dean, C. Mol. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Establishment of the winter-annual growth habit via FRIGIDA-mediated histone methylation at FLOWERING LOCUS C in Arabidopsis. Jiang, D., Gu, X., He, Y. Plant. Cell (2009) [Pubmed]
  20. Attenuation of FLOWERING LOCUS C activity as a mechanism for the evolution of summer-annual flowering behavior in Arabidopsis. Michaels, S.D., He, Y., Scortecci, K.C., Amasino, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. EARLY IN SHORT DAYS 1 (ESD1) encodes ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN 6 (AtARP6), a putative component of chromatin remodelling complexes that positively regulates FLC accumulation in Arabidopsis. Martin-Trillo, M., Lázaro, A., Poethig, R.S., Gómez-Mena, C., Piñeiro, M.A., Martinez-Zapater, J.M., Jarillo, J.A. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Cloning, characterization and genetic engineering of FLC homolog in Thellungiella halophila. Fang, Q., Xu, Z., Song, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities