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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparison of clinically nonpalpable prostate-specific antigen-detected (cT1c) versus palpable ( cT2) prostate cancers in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy.

OBJECTIVES: Serum prostate-specific antigen ( PSA) testing has led to increased detection of clinically localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcome of digitally palpable ( cT2) and PSA detected (cT1c) prostate cancers. METHODS: We evaluated 4453 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) between 1987 and 1995 at the Mayo Clinic. Overall, 1041 (23.4%), 1076 (24.2%), and 2336 (52.5%) patients had cT1c, cT2a, and cT2b/c disease, respectively. Patients were analyzed with regard to Gleason score, preoperative PSA, pathologic stage, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ploidy, margin status, tumor volume, and adjuvant treatment. Survival outcomes at 5 and 7 years were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with respect to the end points of systemic/local clinical progression and clinical and/or PSA progression (greater than 0.2 microg/mL). Multivariate analysis was employed to estimate the relative risk of progression associated with each clinical stage when adjusted for the above factors. RESULTS: Clinical T1c tumors were more likely to be organ confined (76% versus 54%), have a Gleason score less than 7 (75% versus 61%), and be diploid (80% versus 70%) than cT2b/c tumors (P <0.001). Clinical T1c disease closely resembled cT2b/c disease with respect to preoperative PSA. Considering pathologic stage, DNA ploidy, and tumor volume, cT1c tumors were comparable to cT2a lesions. Of the patients with T1c cancers, 96.2% had clinically significant cancer on the basis of pathologic grade and tumor volume. The 5 (and 7 year) systemic/local clinical progression-free and PSA progression-free survivals for cT1c tumors were 97.7+/-0.7% (96.4+/-1.1%) and 82.2+/-1.7% (72.9+/-3.8%), respectively. There was a significant survival advantage at 5 and 7 years regarding both end points for cT1c and cT2a compared with cT2b/c tumors (P <0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed a continued benefit in PSA and systemic/local clinical progression for cT1c tumors compared with cT2b/c tumors adjusting for the above factors. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical T1c tumors are clinically significant cancers. When compared with digitally palpable tumors, progression-free survival rates for cT1c tumors are similar to cT2a lesions, but are significantly better than cT2b/c lesions. This supports continued use of serum PSA to detect potentially curable prostate cancer.[1]


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