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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Risk


Psychiatry related information on Risk


High impact information on Risk

  • Because of the potential for vascular and endometrial side effects, women who are candidates for a preventive course of tamoxifen must be counseled regarding its relative risks and benefits [11].
  • We show that one intronic SNP in PDCD1 is associated with development of SLE in Europeans (found in 12% of affected individuals versus 5% of controls; P = 0.00001, r.r. (relative risk) = 2.6) and Mexicans (found in 7% of affected individuals versus 2% of controls; P = 0.0009, r.r. = 3.5) [12].
  • The women who were randomly assigned to receive estrogen therapy had a higher risk of fatal stroke (relative risk, 2.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 9.0), and their nonfatal strokes were associated with slightly worse neurologic and functional deficits [13].
  • The risk of decline in the cognitive function, as measured by four of the six tests, did not differ significantly between the two raloxifene groups combined and the placebo group, but there was a trend toward less decline in the combined raloxifene group on the two tests of verbal memory (relative risk, 0.77) and attention, (relative risk, 0.87) [14].
  • RESULTS: Overall, the incidence of hip fracture among all the women assigned to risedronate was 2.8 percent, as compared with 3.9 percent among those assigned to placebo (relative risk, 0.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 0.9; P=0.02) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Risk


Biological context of Risk


Anatomical context of Risk


Associations of Risk with chemical compounds

  • Relative risks for saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat and for cholesterol, considered individually, were also close to unity [31].
  • The relative risk increased with the duration of estrogen treatment (P = 0.002), reaching 1.7 after nine years (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7) [32].
  • The risk of death in the group treated with vitamin A was less than half that in the control group (relative risk, 0.46; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.71) [33].
  • This association was particularly striking in the subgroup of 21,809 women who did not consume vitamin supplements (relative risks from lowest to highest quintile of vitamin E intake, 1.0, 0.68, 0.71, 0.42, and 0.42; P for trend 0.008) [34].
  • Among zidovudine users, those who also used PCP prophylaxis before the development of AIDS had significantly lower mortality at 18 and 24 months than those who did not (relative risks, 0.62 and 0.60, respectively) [35].

Gene context of Risk

  • Relative risks (RRs) of each cancer type in BRCA1 carriers relative to risks for the general population were estimated by weighting individuals according to their estimated probability of being a mutation carrier [36].
  • A rare variant of the C4B locus, C4B*2.9, was found in 25% of these patients compared with only 2% of the normal population--a relative risk of 22.1 for glomerulonephritis in individuals with this variant [37].
  • The relative risk of acute GVHD associated with a single locus HLA-DQB1 mismatch was 1.8 (1.1, 2.7; P = 0.01), and the risk associated with any HLA-DQB1 and/or HLA-DRB1 mismatch was 1.6 (1.2, 2.2; P = 0.003) [38].
  • Analysis identified a predominant ancestral haplotype comprising alleles 5-1-3-2-8 (marker order: D6S248-D6S265-HLA-A-HLA-F-D6S105), present in 21 (33%) of 64 affected chromosomes, and exclusively associated with HC (haplotype relative risk 903) [39].
  • Diabetics and normal controls were screened for TAP1 using single-stranded conformational polymorphism and relative risk was determined [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Risk


  1. Plasma organochlorine levels and the risk of breast cancer. Hunter, D.J., Hankinson, S.E., Laden, F., Colditz, G.A., Manson, J.E., Willett, W.C., Speizer, F.E., Wolff, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Body iron stores and the risk of coronary heart disease. Sempos, C.T., Looker, A.C., Gillum, R.F., Makuc, D.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Association of exogenous estrogen and endometrial carcinoma. Smith, D.C., Prentice, R., Thompson, D.J., Herrmann, W.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Acetaminophen, aspirin, and chronic renal failure. Fored, C.M., Ejerblad, E., Lindblad, P., Fryzek, J.P., Dickman, P.W., Signorello, L.B., Lipworth, L., Elinder, C.G., Blot, W.J., McLaughlin, J.K., Zack, M.M., Nyrén, O. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. A comparison of enoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. Prophylaxis in Medical Patients with Enoxaparin Study Group. Samama, M.M., Cohen, A.T., Darmon, J.Y., Desjardins, L., Eldor, A., Janbon, C., Leizorovicz, A., Nguyen, H., Olsson, C.G., Turpie, A.G., Weisslinger, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm: a meta-analysis. Bhutta, A.T., Cleves, M.A., Casey, P.H., Cradock, M.M., Anand, K.J. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and dementia: a community-based prospective study. Chen, P., Ganguli, M., Mulsant, B.H., DeKosky, S.T. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in genetic hemochromatosis. Fargion, S., Fracanzani, A.L., Piperno, A., Braga, M., D'Alba, R., Ronchi, G., Fiorelli, G. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Generalizing the results of clinical trials to actual practice: the example of clopidogrel therapy for the prevention of vascular events. CAPRA (CAPRIE Actual Practice Rates Analysis) Study Group. Clopidogrel versus Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischaemic Events. Caro, J.J., Migliaccio-Walle, K. Am. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Depression and cardiovascular sequelae in postmenopausal women. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Shumaker, S., Ockene, J., Talavera, G.A., Greenland, P., Cochrane, B., Robbins, J., Aragaki, A., Dunbar-Jacob, J. Arch. Intern. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Breast cancer prevention: a review of current evidence. Vogel, V.G. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. A regulatory polymorphism in PDCD1 is associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in humans. Prokunina, L., Castillejo-López, C., Oberg, F., Gunnarsson, I., Berg, L., Magnusson, V., Brookes, A.J., Tentler, D., Kristjansdóttir, H., Gröndal, G., Bolstad, A.I., Svenungsson, E., Lundberg, I., Sturfelt, G., Jönssen, A., Truedsson, L., Lima, G., Alcocer-Varela, J., Jonsson, R., Gyllensten, U.B., Harley, J.B., Alarcón-Segovia, D., Steinsson, K., Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A clinical trial of estrogen-replacement therapy after ischemic stroke. Viscoli, C.M., Brass, L.M., Kernan, W.N., Sarrel, P.M., Suissa, S., Horwitz, R.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene. Yaffe, K., Krueger, K., Sarkar, S., Grady, D., Barrett-Connor, E., Cox, D.A., Nickelsen, T. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. Hip Intervention Program Study Group. McClung, M.R., Geusens, P., Miller, P.D., Zippel, H., Bensen, W.G., Roux, C., Adami, S., Fogelman, I., Diamond, T., Eastell, R., Meunier, P.J., Reginster, J.Y. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Risks of cancer of the colon and rectum in relation to serum cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein. Törnberg, S.A., Holm, L.E., Carstensen, J.M., Eklund, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. Polyp Prevention Study Group. Greenberg, E.R., Baron, J.A., Tosteson, T.D., Freeman, D.H., Beck, G.J., Bond, J.H., Colacchio, T.A., Coller, J.A., Frankl, H.D., Haile, R.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Zidovudine in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4+ cell counts greater than 400 per cubic millimeter. The European-Australian Collaborative Group. Cooper, D.A., Gatell, J.M., Kroon, S., Clumeck, N., Millard, J., Goebel, F.D., Bruun, J.N., Stingl, G., Melville, R.L., González-Lahoz, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Association of adrenocorticosteroid therapy and peptic-ulcer disease. Messer, J., Reitman, D., Sacks, H.S., Smith, H., Chalmers, T.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. The use of estrogens and progestins and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Colditz, G.A., Hankinson, S.E., Hunter, D.J., Willett, W.C., Manson, J.E., Stampfer, M.J., Hennekens, C., Rosner, B., Speizer, F.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Analysis of HLA-DQ genotypes and susceptibility in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Baisch, J.M., Weeks, T., Giles, R., Hoover, M., Stastny, P., Capra, J.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Failure of metronidazole to prevent preterm delivery among pregnant women with asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Klebanoff, M.A., Carey, J.C., Hauth, J.C., Hillier, S.L., Nugent, R.P., Thom, E.A., Ernest, J.M., Heine, R.P., Wapner, R.J., Trout, W., Moawad, A., Leveno, K.J., Miodovnik, M., Sibai, B.M., Van Dorsten, J.P., Dombrowski, M.P., O'Sullivan, M.J., Varner, M., Langer, O., McNellis, D., Roberts, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Fingerhut, M.A., Halperin, W.E., Marlow, D.A., Piacitelli, L.A., Honchar, P.A., Sweeney, M.H., Greife, A.L., Dill, P.A., Steenland, K., Suruda, A.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Tubal sterilization and subsequent ectopic pregnancy. A case-control study. Holt, V.L., Chu, J., Daling, J.R., Stergachis, A.S., Weiss, N.S. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. A diabetes-susceptible HLA haplotype is best defined by a combination of HLA-DR and -DQ alleles. Sheehy, M.J., Scharf, S.J., Rowe, J.R., Neme de Gimenez, M.H., Meske, L.M., Erlich, H.A., Nepom, B.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. A prospective study of the development of diabetes in relatives of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Riley, W.J., Maclaren, N.K., Krischer, J., Spillar, R.P., Silverstein, J.H., Schatz, D.A., Schwartz, S., Malone, J., Shah, S., Vadheim, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Predominance of early endometrial cancers after long-term estrogen use. Hulka, B.S., Kaufman, D.G., Fowler, W.C., Grimson, R.C., Greenberg, B.G. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Randomised trial of thiacetazone and rifampicin-containing regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected Ugandans. The Makerere University-Case Western University Research Collaboration. Okwera, A., Whalen, C., Byekwaso, F., Vjecha, M., Johnson, J., Huebner, R., Mugerwa, R., Ellner, J. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis. Vasen, H.F., Wijnen, J.T., Menko, F.H., Kleibeuker, J.H., Taal, B.G., Griffioen, G., Nagengast, F.M., Meijers-Heijboer, E.H., Bertario, L., Varesco, L., Bisgaard, M.L., Mohr, J., Fodde, R., Khan, P.M. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cardiovascular surgery. Efficacy with coronary artery bypass. Platt, R., Muñoz, A., Stella, J., VanDevanter, S., Koster, J.K. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Cohort studies of fat intake and the risk of breast cancer--a pooled analysis. Hunter, D.J., Spiegelman, D., Adami, H.O., Beeson, L., van den Brandt, P.A., Folsom, A.R., Fraser, G.E., Goldbohm, R.A., Graham, S., Howe, G.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. The risk of breast cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement. Bergkvist, L., Adami, H.O., Persson, I., Hoover, R., Schairer, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Reduced mortality among children in southern India receiving a small weekly dose of vitamin A. Rahmathullah, L., Underwood, B.A., Thulasiraj, R.D., Milton, R.C., Ramaswamy, K., Rahmathullah, R., Babu, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Kushi, L.H., Folsom, A.R., Prineas, R.J., Mink, P.J., Wu, Y., Bostick, R.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. The effects on survival of early treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Graham, N.M., Zeger, S.L., Park, L.P., Vermund, S.H., Detels, R., Rinaldo, C.R., Phair, J.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Cancer Incidence in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Thompson, D., Easton, D.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Rare variant of complement C4 is seen in high frequency in patients with primary glomerulonephritis. Wank, R., Schendel, D.J., O'Neill, G.J., Riethmüller, G., Held, E., Feucht, H.E. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  38. Definition of HLA-DQ as a transplantation antigen. Petersdorf, E.W., Longton, G.M., Anasetti, C., Mickelson, E.M., Smith, A.G., Martin, P.J., Hansen, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Haplotype analysis in Australian hemochromatosis patients: evidence for a predominant ancestral haplotype exclusively associated with hemochromatosis. Jazwinska, E.C., Pyper, W.R., Burt, M.J., Francis, J.L., Goldwurm, S., Webb, S.I., Lee, S.C., Halliday, J.W., Powell, L.W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. TAP1 alleles in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a newly defined centromeric boundary of disease susceptibility. Jackson, D.G., Capra, J.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  41. An association between the risk of cancer and mutations in the HRAS1 minisatellite locus. Krontiris, T.G., Devlin, B., Karp, D.D., Robert, N.J., Risch, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  42. Effects of Medicaid drug-payment limits on admission to hospitals and nursing homes. Soumerai, S.B., Ross-Degnan, D., Avorn, J., McLaughlin, T., Choodnovskiy, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  43. Molecular predictors of survival after adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Watanabe, T., Wu, T.T., Catalano, P.J., Ueki, T., Satriano, R., Haller, D.G., Benson, A.B., Hamilton, S.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  44. Cisplatin, radiation, and adjuvant hysterectomy compared with radiation and adjuvant hysterectomy for bulky stage IB cervical carcinoma. Keys, H.M., Bundy, B.N., Stehman, F.B., Muderspach, L.I., Chafe, W.E., Suggs, C.L., Walker, J.L., Gersell, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  45. Primary tubal infertility in relation to the use of an intrauterine device. Daling, J.R., Weiss, N.S., Metch, B.J., Chow, W.H., Soderstrom, R.M., Moore, D.E., Spadoni, L.R., Stadel, B.V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
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