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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Ploidies


Psychiatry related information on Ploidies


High impact information on Ploidies

  • Clones of Tsc1 mutant cells in the imaginal discs undergo additional divisions but retain normal ploidy [7].
  • Clinical and survival information were collected, along with data on 1p, N-myc, and ploidy [8].
  • In two independent revertant lines, an increase in chromosomal ploidy occurred without a concomitant increase in the number of copies of the N-ras transforming allele [9].
  • Moreover, ploidy regulation of the FLO11 gene had direct consequences for yeast development [10].
  • Therefore, RAD17 links the checkpoint to ploidy control and is essential for the maintenance of chromosomal stability [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ploidies


Biological context of Ploidies

  • The high ploidy phenotype in the pop1 mutant is dependent on the presence of the rum1+ gene, whereas the accumulation of Cdc18 is independent of Rum1 [17].
  • The mutants were selected as resistant to camphor vapors, which results in increased ploidy, and were subsequently screened for an increase in cell density and an increase in the gene dosage of the lac operon [18].
  • Such genomic instability is even more dramatic in Deltabub1 diploids, leading to massive chromosome missegregation events and loss of the diploid state, demonstrating that bub1(+ )function is essential to maintain correct ploidy through mitosis [19].
  • The most frequently identified gene that arose from the bem1 synthetic-lethal screen was the bud-emergence gene BEM2 (Bender and Pringle. 1991. Mol. Cell Biol. 11:1295-1395), which is allelic with IPL2 (increase in ploidy; Chan and Botstein, 1993. Genetics. 135:677-691) [20].
  • These combined results suggest that mutations in KRAS2 occur early in the development of human colon carcinoma, before change in ploidy, and that these mutations exist in diploid cells from which an aneuploid subpopulation arises [5].

Anatomical context of Ploidies


Associations of Ploidies with chemical compounds


Gene context of Ploidies

  • Deregulation of bir-1 promotes changes in ploidy, suggesting that similar deregulation of mammalian BIRPs may contribute to tumorigenesis [31].
  • There were no clinically important differences in DNA ploidy, histologic type, HER-2/neu, and p53 expression among the three groups [32].
  • Null mutations of CYCA2;3 semidominantly promoted endocycles and increased the ploidy levels achieved in mature organs, but they did not significantly affect the proportion of cells that underwent endoreduplication [33].
  • MKs reached a ploidy of 32N and 64N in the presence of TPO [34].
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was upregulated at the early stage of megakaryocytic differentiation, and overexpression of p21 resulted in an increase in ploidy of UT-7 cells [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ploidies

  • Moreover, IL-6 induced a significant shift toward higher ploidy classes when megakaryocytic DNA was quantitated by flow cytometry [36].
  • RESULTS: Among stage D MYCN-amplified patients, 4-year event-free survival (EFS) +/- SE had no prognostic significance for tumor cell ploidy for patients either younger than 12 months or > or = 12 months old [37].
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with endometrial carcinoma who did not receive radiotherapy or chemotherapy before surgery, the presence of decreased levels of pRb2/p130 in tumor cells is associated with a significantly increased risk of recurrence and death of disease, independent of tumor stage and ploidy status [38].
  • To analyze the behavior of cell subpopulations within a tumor following tamoxifen treatment, we have used a new flow cytometry-based immunoassay and software that simultaneously quantitate PR levels and the DNA indices of ploidy and cell cycle stage in total cell populations or any subset thereof [39].
  • We conclude that routine assessment of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, DNA ploidy, and p53 may be valuable for the early diagnosis of SCC [40].


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  2. Nucleic acids from subcellular fractions of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatoma in mice. Shaposhnikov, J.D., Shalumovich, W.N., Kisselev, O.I., Gaitskhoki, V.S., Pozharisski, K.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Blast cell methotrexate-polyglutamate accumulation in vivo differs by lineage, ploidy, and methotrexate dose in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Synold, T.W., Relling, M.V., Boyett, J.M., Rivera, G.K., Sandlund, J.T., Mahmoud, H., Crist, W.M., Pui, C.H., Evans, W.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. p53 mutation, expression, and DNA ploidy in evolving gliomas: evidence for two pathways of progression. van Meyel, D.J., Ramsay, D.A., Casson, A.G., Keeney, M., Chambers, A.F., Cairncross, J.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutations in the KRAS2 oncogene during progressive stages of human colon carcinoma. Burmer, G.C., Loeb, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparison between diploid and aneuploid hepatocellular carcinomas: a flow cytometric study. Nagasue, N., Yamanoi, A., Takemoto, Y., Kimoto, T., Uchida, M., Chang, Y.C., Taniura, H., Kohno, H., Nakamura, T. The British journal of surgery. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Drosophila Tsc1 functions with Tsc2 to antagonize insulin signaling in regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and organ size. Potter, C.J., Huang, H., Xu, T. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Gain of chromosome arm 17q and adverse outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. Bown, N., Cotterill, S., Lastowska, M., O'Neill, S., Pearson, A.D., Plantaz, D., Meddeb, M., Danglot, G., Brinkschmidt, C., Christiansen, H., Laureys, G., Speleman, F., Nicholson, J., Bernheim, A., Betts, D.R., Vandesompele, J., Van Roy, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Activated N-ras controls the transformed phenotype of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Paterson, H., Reeves, B., Brown, R., Hall, A., Furth, M., Bos, J., Jones, P., Marshall, C. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Ploidy regulation of gene expression. Galitski, T., Saldanha, A.J., Styles, C.A., Lander, E.S., Fink, G.R. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Genomic instability and endoreduplication triggered by RAD17 deletion. Wang, X., Zou, L., Zheng, H., Wei, Q., Elledge, S.J., Li, L. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation and characterization of spontaneous wheat germ agglutinin-resistant human melanoma mutants displaying remarkably different metastatic profiles in nude mice. Ishikawa, M., Dennis, J.W., Man, S., Kerbel, R.S. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. A prognostic model that makes quantitative estimates of probability of relapse for breast cancer patients. De Laurentiis, M., De Placido, S., Bianco, A.R., Clark, G.M., Ravdin, P.M. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension on cell ploidy in the rat aorta. Lichtenstein, A.H., Brecher, P., Chobanian, A.V. Hypertension (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy pattern from deparaffinized formalin-fixed gastric cancer tissue. Tosi, P., Leoncini, L., Cintorino, M., Vindigni, C., Minacci, C., Nuti, S., Pinto, E., de Stefano, A., Cevenini, G. Int. J. Cancer (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Reduced proliferative activity of polyploid cells in primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Gerlyng, P., Grotmol, T., Erikstein, B., Stokke, T., Seglen, P.O. Carcinogenesis (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Fission yeast WD-repeat protein pop1 regulates genome ploidy through ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of the CDK inhibitor Rum1 and the S-phase initiator Cdc18. Kominami, K., Toda, T. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. On the bacterial cell cycle: Escherichia coli mutants with altered ploidy. Trun, N.J., Gottesman, S. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Fission yeast bub1 is a mitotic centromere protein essential for the spindle checkpoint and the preservation of correct ploidy through mitosis. Bernard, P., Hardwick, K., Javerzat, J.P. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Interactions between the bud emergence proteins Bem1p and Bem2p and Rho-type GTPases in yeast. Peterson, J., Zheng, Y., Bender, L., Myers, A., Cerione, R., Bender, A. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Lnk inhibits Tpo-mpl signaling and Tpo-mediated megakaryocytopoiesis. Tong, W., Lodish, H.F. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. c-Myc regulates cell size and ploidy but is not essential for postnatal proliferation in liver. Baena, E., Gandarillas, A., Vallespinós, M., Zanet, J., Bachs, O., Redondo, C., Fabregat, I., Martinez-A, C., de Alborán, I.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Reversion to methionine independence in simian virus 40-transformed human and malignant rat fibroblasts is associated with altered ploidy and altered properties of transformation. Hoffman, R.M., Jacobsen, S.J., Erbe, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Culture of isolated bovine megakaryocytes on reconstituted basement membrane matrix leads to proplatelet process formation. Topp, K.S., Tablin, F., Levin, J. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Anomalous megakaryocytopoiesis in mice with mutations in the c-Myb gene. Metcalf, D., Carpinelli, M.R., Hyland, C., Mifsud, S., Dirago, L., Nicola, N.A., Hilton, D.J., Alexander, W.S. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Prognostic significance of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein expression in axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer. Yee, D., Sharma, J., Hilsenbeck, S.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Cell cycle block at G1-S or G2-M phase correlates with differentiation of Caco-2 cells: effect of constitutive insulin-like growth factor II expression. Zarrilli, R., Pignata, S., Apicella, A., Di Popolo, A., Memoli, A., Ricchi, P., Salzano, S., Acquaviva, A.M. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. The role of the Arabidopsis E2FB transcription factor in regulating auxin-dependent cell division. Magyar, Z., De Veylder, L., Atanassova, A., Bakó, L., Inzé, D., Bögre, L. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Favorable prognosis of hyperdiploid common acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be explained by sensitivity to antimetabolites and other drugs: results of an in vitro study. Kaspers, G.J., Smets, L.A., Pieters, R., Van Zantwijk, C.H., Van Wering, E.R., Veerman, A.J. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Sialic acid in mature megakaryocytes: detection by wheat germ agglutinin. Schick, P.K., Filmyer, W.G. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. The survivin-like C. elegans BIR-1 protein acts with the Aurora-like kinase AIR-2 to affect chromosomes and the spindle midzone. Speliotes, E.K., Uren, A., Vaux, D., Horvitz, H.R. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Tumor biologic factors and breast cancer prognosis among white, Hispanic, and black women in the United States. Elledge, R.M., Clark, G.M., Chamness, G.C., Osborne, C.K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. The A-type cyclin CYCA2;3 is a key regulator of ploidy levels in Arabidopsis endoreduplication. Imai, K.K., Ohashi, Y., Tsuge, T., Yoshizumi, T., Matsui, M., Oka, A., Aoyama, T. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. The Mpl-ligand or thrombopoietin or megakaryocyte growth and differentiative factor has both direct proliferative and differentiative activities on human megakaryocyte progenitors. Debili, N., Wendling, F., Katz, A., Guichard, J., Breton-Gorius, J., Hunt, P., Vainchenker, W. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Polyploidization and functional maturation are two distinct processes during megakaryocytic differentiation: involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in polyploidization. Kikuchi, J., Furukawa, Y., Iwase, S., Terui, Y., Nakamura, M., Kitagawa, S., Kitagawa, M., Komatsu, N., Miura, Y. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Human interleukin 6 is a direct promoter of maturation of megakaryocytes in vitro. Ishibashi, T., Kimura, H., Uchida, T., Kariyone, S., Friese, P., Burstein, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Hyperdiploidy plus nonamplified MYCN confers a favorable prognosis in children 12 to 18 months old with disseminated neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. George, R.E., London, W.B., Cohn, S.L., Maris, J.M., Kretschmar, C., Diller, L., Brodeur, G.M., Castleberry, R.P., Look, A.T. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Expression of the retinoblastoma-related gene Rb2/p130 correlates with clinical outcome in endometrial cancer. Susini, T., Baldi, F., Howard, C.M., Baldi, A., Taddei, G., Massi, D., Rapi, S., Savino, L., Massi, G., Giordano, A. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Heterogeneity of progesterone receptor content and remodeling by tamoxifen characterize subpopulations of cultured human breast cancer cells: analysis by quantitative dual parameter flow cytometry. Graham, M.L., Smith, J.A., Jewett, P.B., Horwitz, K.B. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Genesis of squamous cell lung carcinoma. Sequential changes of proliferation, DNA ploidy, and p53 expression. Hirano, T., Franzén, B., Kato, H., Ebihara, Y., Auer, G. Am. J. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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