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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Tumor Burden

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Disease relevance of Tumor Burden

  • OBJECTIVE--To determine if African-American men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC) have higher pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values after adjustment for clinical stage, age, and tumor grade, and to determine if any difference detected is related to tumor volume difference [1].
  • The presence of regional metastases or large primary tumor burden resulted in a further sharp fall in IL generation (0.9 and 10% for IL-1 and IL-2, respectively, when compared to control animals; P less than .01) [2].
  • These studies suggest that measurement of the 100K MAA may be useful in monitoring tumor burden in patients with malignant melanoma [3].
  • Although intramuscular cachectin/TNF-secreting tumors caused similar increases of serum h-cachectin/TNF levels, profound anorexia did not develop; wasting developed after a longer period of tumor burden (50 d) with classical signs of cachexia (i.e., anemia and depletion of both protein and lipid) [4].
  • Celecoxib treatment initiating before polyposis (3.5-10 months) led to a dramatic reduction in tumor burden (86%) and was associated with decreased vascularity of the polyps [5].

Psychiatry related information on Tumor Burden


High impact information on Tumor Burden

  • Monitoring of the serum M component showed a predominantly stable tumor load without apparent interaction between the underlying disease and the response to erythropoietin therapy [7].
  • The PAP concentration was elevated in only 57 of the patients with cancer and correlated less closely with tumor volume [8].
  • Multiple tumor burden in Ovca1 heterozygotes that were also p53 deficient was significantly higher than in p53 homozygous mutants [9].
  • A single injection of rDCs following allogeneic BMT controlled the ability of the transplanted T cells to induce acute GVHD and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in the recipients bearing leukemia, and that resulted in protection from the lethality caused by acute GVHD and tumor burden [10].
  • Elevated PSA value was a surrogate for larger tumor volume in this cohort of black men [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tumor Burden


Biological context of Tumor Burden


Anatomical context of Tumor Burden

  • However, patients with K-ras mutations had a significantly higher mean bone marrow tumor burden at diagnosis than patients with no ras mutations (57% v 36%, P < .02); and the median survival of patients with a K-ras mutation was significantly shorter (2.0 v 3.7 years, P < .02) [21].
  • A cytoreductive pretreatment with cyclophosphamide 200 mg/m2, and prednisone 60 mg/m2, each for 5 days was recommended in study B-NHL83 for patients with high white blood cell (WBC) count (> 2,500/m2) or large tumor burden and was obligatory for all patients in study B-NHL86 [22].
  • Furthermore, CD123(+) dendritic cells, major producers of IFN-alpha, were significantly diminished in SzS patients, regardless of the level of tumor burden [23].
  • Because, in the 5TGM1 model, blockade of osteoclastic resorption in other situations does not decrease tumor burden, we conclude that MIP-1alpha exerts a dual effect in myeloma, on osteoclasts, and tumor cells [24].
  • Our results suggest that increasing angiogenesis from MGUS to NMM is, at least in part, explained by increasing tumor burden rather than increased expression of VEGF/bFGF by individual plasma cells [25].

Associations of Tumor Burden with chemical compounds

  • The efficacy of the treatment regimen depended on the presence of a large tumor burden, and the response was abolished when the mice were preirradiated or treated with the immunosuppressive agent, cyclophosphamide [26].
  • Adriamycin alone at 5 mg/kg resulted in an eventual tumor of 70 percent of the control value at death, whereas at 2mg/kg the tumor volume was 60 percent of control [27].
  • In addition, the LGD1069 and tamoxifen combination was associated with a statistically significant decrease in total tumor burden (two-sided P =.03) [28].
  • Injections of 17beta-estradiol valerate (0.1 mg/wk) from day 1 or of DBcAMP from day 22 resulted in insignificant changes in growth--28% and 35% increases in tumor volume and a 5% decrease and an 18% increase, respectively, in drained wet weight [29].
  • Plasma glucose levels decreased with tumor burden [18].

Gene context of Tumor Burden

  • By contrast, in TLR4-deficient mice, there was no difference in tumor volume between the two treatment groups [30].
  • This study was designed to determine whether COX-2 inhibition would reduce tumor burden in Lkb1(+/-) mice or Peutz-Jeghers patients [5].
  • In a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) background, median lung tumor count in Nf-E2(-/-), Par4(-/-), and Fib(-/-) mice was 6%, 14%, and 24% of wild type, respectively; total tumor burden was only 4%, 9%, and 3% of wild type, respectively [31].
  • The synergy seen in combination IL-2 and TNF therapy appeared to be dependent upon tumor burden, but somewhat independent of tumor location [32].
  • The decrease in tumor [(18)F]FLT uptake correlated with the PCNA-labeling index (r = 0.71, P = 0.031) and tumor volume changes after 5-FU treatment (r = 0.58, P = 0.001) [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tumor Burden

  • Two types of response were observed: For Cy and Dx, the response of the xenografts was negatively correlated with tumor volume doubling time (TD), indicating that rapidly growing tumors were more sensitive to these drugs than were slowly growing tumors [34].
  • The reduction in tumor weights after treatment with SB-75, D-Trp6-LH-RH, D-Trp6-LH-RH plus tamoxifen, or ovariectomy was 84%, 64%, 33%, and 67%, respectively [35].
  • CR was determined by hematological analysis, tumor burden was examined with real-time quantitative RT-PCR of the PML-RAR alpha (promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha) fusion transcripts, and side effects were evaluated by means of clinical examinations [36].
  • Reduced tumor load in peripheral blood after treatment with G-CSF and chemotherapy in children with tumors of the Ewing sarcoma family but not neuroblastoma [37].
  • The antitumor effect of 1.0 microgram/kg BW OCT (mean +/- SEM of tumor weight in 10 mice: 44 +/- 6% of vehicle-treated group) was greater than that of 500 micrograms/kg BW Adriamycin (71 +/- 6% of control group) [38].


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  2. Interleukin generation in experimental colon cancer of rats: effects of tumor growth and tumor therapy. Ravikumar, T., Rodrick, M., Steele, G., Marrazo, J., O'Dwyer, P., Dodson, T., King, V. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Measurement of a monoclonal antibody-defined, melanoma-associated antigen in human sera: correlation of circulating antigen levels with tumor burden. Morgan, A.C., Crane, M.M., Rossen, R.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Metabolic effects of cachectin/tumor necrosis factor are modified by site of production. Cachectin/tumor necrosis factor-secreting tumor in skeletal muscle induces chronic cachexia, while implantation in brain induces predominantly acute anorexia. Tracey, K.J., Morgello, S., Koplin, B., Fahey, T.J., Fox, J., Aledo, A., Manogue, K.R., Cerami, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
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  6. Survival time in mice bearing TLX5 lymphoma subjected to rotational stress and chemotherapy with CCNU. Perissin, L., Rapozzi, V., Zorzet, S., Giraldi, T. Anticancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
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  9. Ovca1 regulates cell proliferation, embryonic development, and tumorigenesis. Chen, C.M., Behringer, R.R. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulatory dendritic cells protect mice from murine acute graft-versus-host disease and leukemia relapse. Sato, K., Yamashita, N., Yamashita, N., Baba, M., Matsuyama, T. Immunity (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Ibandronate reduces osteolytic lesions but not tumor burden in a murine model of myeloma bone disease. Dallas, S.L., Garrett, I.R., Oyajobi, B.O., Dallas, M.R., Boyce, B.F., Bauss, F., Radl, J., Mundy, G.R. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Reduction of tumor burden in a murine osteosarcoma following hyperthermia combined with cyclophosphamide. Hiramoto, R.N., Ghanta, V.K., Lilly, M.B. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to oxazolone in mice with tumors. Hemsworth, G.R., Wolff, J.S., Kraska, A.R., Jensen, K.E. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Serum sialic acid and sialyltransferase as monitors of tumor burden in malignant melanoma patients. Silver, H.K., Karim, K.A., Archibald, E.L., Salinas, F.A. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Sulindac sulfone inhibits azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats without reducing prostaglandin levels. Piazza, G.A., Alberts, D.S., Hixson, L.J., Paranka, N.S., Li, H., Finn, T., Bogert, C., Guillen, J.M., Brendel, K., Gross, P.H., Sperl, G., Ritchie, J., Burt, R.W., Ellsworth, L., Ahnen, D.J., Pamukcu, R. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Growth inhibition of estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent MXT mammary cancers in mice by the bombesin and gastrin-releasing peptide antagonist RC-3095. Szepeshazi, K., Schally, A.V., Halmos, G., Groot, K., Radulovic, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Selective in vivo and in vitro effects of a small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4. Soni, R., O'Reilly, T., Furet, P., Muller, L., Stephan, C., Zumstein-Mecker, S., Fretz, H., Fabbro, D., Chaudhuri, B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Gluconeogenesis in the tumor-influenced rat hepatocyte: importance of tumor burden, lactate, insulin, and glucagon. Inculet, R.I., Peacock, J.L., Gorschboth, C.M., Norton, J.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Soy phytochemicals prevent orthotopic growth and metastasis of bladder cancer in mice by alterations of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. Singh, A.V., Franke, A.A., Blackburn, G.L., Zhou, J.R. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Serum prostate specific antigen levels in mice bearing human prostate LNCaP tumors are determined by tumor volume and endocrine and growth factors. Gleave, M.E., Hsieh, J.T., Wu, H.C., von Eschenbach, A.C., Chung, L.W. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Activating mutations of N- and K-ras in multiple myeloma show different clinical associations: analysis of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Phase III Trial. Liu, P., Leong, T., Quam, L., Billadeau, D., Kay, N.E., Greipp, P., Kyle, R.A., Oken, M.M., Van Ness, B. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Improved outcome in adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hoelzer, D., Ludwig, W.D., Thiel, E., Gassmann, W., Löffler, H., Fonatsch, C., Rieder, H., Heil, G., Heinze, B., Arnold, R., Hossfeld, D., Büchner, T., Koch, P., Freund, M., Hiddemann, W., Maschmeyer, G., Heyll, A., Aul, C., Faak, T., Kuse, R., Ittel, T.H., Gramatzki, M., Diedrich, H., Kolbe, K., Fuhr, H.G., Fischer, K., Schadeck-Gressel, C., Weiss, A., Strohscheer, I., Metzner, B., Fabry, U., Gökbuget, N., Völkers, B., Messerer, D., Uberla, K. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Sézary syndrome patients demonstrate a defect in dendritic cell populations: effects of CD40 ligand and treatment with GM-CSF on dendritic cell numbers and the production of cytokines. Wysocka, M., Zaki, M.H., French, L.E., Chehimi, J., Shapiro, M., Everetts, S.E., McGinnis, K.S., Montaner, L., Rook, A.H. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Dual effects of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha on osteolysis and tumor burden in the murine 5TGM1 model of myeloma bone disease. Oyajobi, B.O., Franchin, G., Williams, P.J., Pulkrabek, D., Gupta, A., Munoz, S., Grubbs, B., Zhao, M., Chen, D., Sherry, B., Mundy, G.R. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Bone marrow angiogenic ability and expression of angiogenic cytokines in myeloma: evidence favoring loss of marrow angiogenesis inhibitory activity with disease progression. Kumar, S., Witzig, T.E., Timm, M., Haug, J., Wellik, L., Kimlinger, T.K., Greipp, P.R., Rajkumar, S.V. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Response of transplanted AKR leukemia to combination therapy with amphotericin B and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea: dose and schedule dependency. Medoff, G., Valeriote, F., Ryan, J., Tolen, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Control of local tumor growth with combined fractionated radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic regimens. Poulakos, L., Schenken, L.L., Hagemann, R.F., Burholt, D.R., Lesher, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand LGD1069 on mammary carcinoma after tamoxifen failure. Bischoff, E.D., Heyman, R.A., Lamph, W.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Enhancement of R3230AC rat mammary tumor growth and cellular differentiation by dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Klein, D.M., Loizzi, R.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
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  31. Platelets, protease-activated receptors, and fibrinogen in hematogenous metastasis. Camerer, E., Qazi, A.A., Duong, D.N., Cornelissen, I., Advincula, R., Coughlin, S.R. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
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  36. All-trans retinoic acid/As2O3 combination yields a high quality remission and survival in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Shen, Z.X., Shi, Z.Z., Fang, J., Gu, B.W., Li, J.M., Zhu, Y.M., Shi, J.Y., Zheng, P.Z., Yan, H., Liu, Y.F., Chen, Y., Shen, Y., Wu, W., Tang, W., Waxman, S., De Thé, H., Wang, Z.Y., Chen, S.J., Chen, Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Reduced tumor load in peripheral blood after treatment with G-CSF and chemotherapy in children with tumors of the Ewing sarcoma family but not neuroblastoma. Burchill, S., Picton, S., Wheeldon, J., Kinsey, S., Lashford, L., Lewis, I. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Antitumor effect of 22-oxa-calcitriol, a noncalcemic analogue of calcitriol, in athymic mice implanted with human breast carcinoma and its synergism with tamoxifen. Abe-Hashimoto, J., Kikuchi, T., Matsumoto, T., Nishii, Y., Ogata, E., Ikeda, K. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
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