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Immune modulation in pemphigus vulgaris: role of CD28 and IL-10.

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous skin disease characterized by Abs to the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-3. Although the autoantibodies have been shown to be pathogenic, the role of the cellular immune system in the pathology of pemphigus-induced acantholysis is unclear. To further delineate the potential role of T cell-signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of PV, we performed passive transfer experiments with PV IgG in gene-targeted mutant mice. Our results demonstrated that CD28-deficient mice (lacking a costimulatory signal for T cell activation) are 5-fold more sensitive to the development of PV than wild-type mice. To evaluate whether the higher incidence of disease was due to an impairment in intercellular adhesion of keratinocytes, we performed an in vitro acantholysis, using CD28-/- mice keratinocytes. No alteration in in vitro adhesion was detected in CD28-/--type keratinocytes. Because the CD28 molecule plays a pivotal role in the induction of Th2 cytokines, we examined the levels of a prototypic Th2 cytokine (IL-10) in CD28-/- mice. Lower levels of IL-10 mRNA were found in lesions from CD28-/- mice. To determine whether pemphigus susceptibility in CD28-/- was related to IL-10 deficiency, we performed passive transfer experiments in IL-10-/- mice that demonstrated increased blisters compared with controls. To confirm that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis, rIL-10 was given with PV IgG. IL-10 significantly suppressed the disease activity. These data suggest a potential role of IL-10 in PV.[1]

References

  1. Immune modulation in pemphigus vulgaris: role of CD28 and IL-10. Toto, P., Feliciani, C., Amerio, P., Suzuki, H., Wang, B., Shivji, G.M., Woodley, D., Sauder, D.N. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
 
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