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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Orthodontic movement induces high numbers of cells expressing IFN-gamma at mRNA and protein levels.

Cytokines are important signaling proteins that are liberated during immune challenges and exhibit many modulatory activities. However, their role in periodontal modeling during orthodontic tooth movement is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze effects of mechanical force during orthodontic tooth movement, in the pressure zone, on the induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) as a proinflammatory cytokine of Th1 type and interleukin-4 (IL-4)/IL-10 as anti-inflammatory cytokines of Th2 type. In 12 Wistar rats 40-45 days old, the maxillary first molar was moved mesially by means of a closed coil spring for 3, 7, and 10 days. The contralateral side served as a control. IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA were determined by in situ, hybridization, and protein levels of IFN-gamma was measured by immunohistochemistry. Induction of IFN-gamma at both mRNA and protein levels was significantly higher on the experimental side than on the contralateral control side on day 3. The signal gradually became stronger on day 7 and remained high on day 10. Cytokines of the Th2 type (IL-4 and IL-10) were not detected at all examined time points in both pressure and contralateral control sides. Considering the potential immunoregulatory roles played by IFN-gamma, our data suggest that IFN-gamma may be involved in periodontium remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement.[1]


  1. Orthodontic movement induces high numbers of cells expressing IFN-gamma at mRNA and protein levels. Alhashimi, N., Frithiof, L., Brudvik, P., Bakhiet, M. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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