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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Periodontium

  • A unique characteristic of the localized inflammatory tissue in the periodontium (e.g., adult periodontitis [AP]) is the accumulation of IgG (IgG1 > IgG2 > IgG3 > or = IgG4) followed by IgA plasma cells (IgA1 > IgA2) [1].
  • To investigate the antibacterial activity of mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses induced nasally and orally, mice were immunized with mucosal vaccine containing fimbrial protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a causative agent for a destructive chronic inflammation in the periodontium, and cholera toxin (CT) as mucosal adjuvant [2].
  • Hormonal influences: effects of diabetes mellitus and endogenous female sex steroid hormones on the periodontium [3].
  • Therefore, phenol-water extractive components of Mycoplasma salivarium might be of pathogenic importance in mediating damaging effects on the periodontium [4].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue samples were collected from patients with healthy periodontium (H group), adult periodontitis (P group), surgically extracted teeth (S group), and nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth (NIGO group) [5].

High impact information on Periodontium


Chemical compound and disease context of Periodontium


Biological context of Periodontium


Anatomical context of Periodontium


Associations of Periodontium with chemical compounds


Gene context of Periodontium

  • Analysis of our data indicates that the cells within the periodontium are up-regulated to produce MMP-8, and the increased expression and activation of GCF MMP-8 reflect enhanced periodontal remodeling induced by orthodontic force [28].
  • Considering the potential immunoregulatory roles played by IFN-gamma, our data suggest that IFN-gamma may be involved in periodontium remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement [29].
  • These results suggest that amelogenin, as well as ameloblastin, might have some 'growth factor' activity during periodontium development and regeneration [30].
  • It has been demonstrated that outer-membrane proteins as well as lipopolysaccharides from P. gingivalis ATCC 53977 can induce interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 from the cells of the periodontium in vitro [31].
  • These findings suggest that CD44 isoform expression is cell type-specifically regulated in periodontium and altered according to growth phase of HGEC [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Periodontium


  1. Gingival mononuclear cells from chronic inflammatory periodontal tissues produce interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-6 but not IL-2 and IL-4. Fujihashi, K., Beagley, K.W., Kono, Y., Aicher, W.K., Yamamoto, M., DiFabio, S., Xu-Amano, J., McGhee, J.R., Kiyono, H. Am. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue (NALT) immunity: fimbriae-specific Th1 and Th2 cell-regulated IgA responses for the inhibition of bacterial attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production. Yanagita, M., Hiroi, T., Kitagaki, N., Hamada, S., Ito, H.O., Shimauchi, H., Murakami, S., Okada, H., Kiyono, H. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Hormonal influences: effects of diabetes mellitus and endogenous female sex steroid hormones on the periodontium. Mealey, B.L., Moritz, A.J. Periodontology 2000. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Chemical analyses, local Shwartzman reactivity, and body weight-decreasing activity of aqueous-phenol extracts of Mycoplasma salivarium cells. Biological activities of Mycoplasma salivarium. Totsuka, M., Shibata, K., Watanabe, T. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunohistochemical analysis of Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and androgen receptor expression in the pathogenesis of nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth. Huang, W.T., Lu, H.K., Chou, H.H., Kuo, M.Y. J. Periodont. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Growth hormone induces bone morphogenetic proteins and bone-related proteins in the developing rat periodontium. Li, H., Bartold, P.M., Young, W.G., Xiao, Y., Waters, M.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of continuous infusion of PTH on experimental tooth movement in rats. Soma, S., Iwamoto, M., Higuchi, Y., Kurisu, K. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Engineering of tooth-supporting structures by delivery of PDGF gene therapy vectors. Jin, Q., Anusaksathien, O., Webb, S.A., Printz, M.A., Giannobile, W.V. Mol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of periodontal ligament cell functions by interleukin-1beta. Agarwal, S., Chandra, C.S., Piesco, N.P., Langkamp, H.H., Bowen, L., Baran, C. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The finite element method: a tool to study orthodontic tooth movement. Cattaneo, P.M., Dalstra, M., Melsen, B. J. Dent. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhanced repair and regeneration of periodontal lesions in tetracycline-treated patients. Case reports. Moskow, B.S., Tannenbaum, P. J. Periodontol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Studies on the biology of the periodontium of marmosets. XIII. Histopathology of niacin deficiency stomatitis in the marmoset. Dreizen, S., Levy, B.M., Bernick, S. J. Periodontol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Changing concepts. The effects of occlusion on periodontitis. Gher, M.E. Dent. Clin. North Am. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Local application of prostaglandin E2 reduces trap, calcitonin receptor and metalloproteinase-2 immunoreactivity in the rat periodontium. Ramirez-Yañez, G.O., Seymour, G.J., Symons, A.L. Arch. Oral Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Root-surface caries in rats and humans: inhibition by a non-antimicrobial property of tetracyclines. Ramamurthy, N.S., Schroeder, K.L., McNamara, T.F., Gwinnett, A.J., Evans, R.T., Bosko, C., Golub, L.M. Adv. Dent. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of heparan sulphate and small dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in chronically inflamed human periodontium. Oksala, O., Haapasalmi, K., Häkkinen, L., Uitto, V.J., Larjava, H. J. Dent. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium. Mariotti, A. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of MMP-8 and MMP-13 mRNAs in rat periodontium during tooth eruption. Tsubota, M., Sasano, Y., Takahashi, I., Kagayama, M., Shimauchi, H. J. Dent. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Progressive cervical root resorption related to tetracycline root conditioning. Ben-Yehouda, A. J. Periodontol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of ascorbic acid on protein synthesis and collagen hydroxylation in continuous flow organ cultures of adult mouse periodontal tissues. Sodek, J., Feng, J., Yen, E.H., Melcher, A.H. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Osseous repair in the presence of active tooth hypermobility. Polson, A.M., Adams, R.A., Zander, H.A. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of nicotine on the attachment of human fibroblasts to glass and human root surfaces in vitro. Raulin, L.A., McPherson, J.C., McQuade, M.J., Hanson, B.S. J. Periodontol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Apoptosis in the early developing periodontium of rat molars. Cerri, P.S., Freymüller, E., Katchburian, E. Anat. Rec. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Formation of reparative acellular extrinsic fiber cementum in relation to implant materials installed in rat periodontium. Beertsen, W., van den Bos, T., Niehof, A., Everts, V. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. A three-dimensional evaluation of the effects of functional occlusal forces on the morphology of dental and periodontal tissues of the rat incisor. Steigman, S., Michaeli, Y., Yitzhaki, M., Weinreb, M. J. Dent. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of topical and systemic nicotine on gingival blood flow in dogs. Johnson, G.K., Todd, G.L., Johnson, W.T., Fung, Y.K., Dubois, L.M. J. Dent. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of prostaglandin E1 on the periodontium of rats. Kafrawy, A.H., Mitchell, D.F. J. Dent. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. The in vivo levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -8 in gingival crevicular fluid during initial orthodontic tooth movement. Apajalahti, S., Sorsa, T., Railavo, S., Ingman, T. J. Dent. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Orthodontic movement induces high numbers of cells expressing IFN-gamma at mRNA and protein levels. Alhashimi, N., Frithiof, L., Brudvik, P., Bakhiet, M. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Amelogenin and ameloblastin show growth-factor like activity in periodontal ligament cells. Zeichner-David, M., Chen, L.S., Hsu, Z., Reyna, J., Caton, J., Bringas, P. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Histatin 5 inhibits inflammatory cytokine induction from human gingival fibroblasts by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Imatani, T., Kato, T., Minaguchi, K., Okuda, K. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. CD44 isoform expression in periodontal tissues: cell-type specific regulation of alternative splicing. Hirano, F., Hirano, H., Hino, E., Takayama, S., Saito, K., Kusumoto, Y., Shimabukuro, Y., Murakami, S., Okada, H. J. Periodont. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Studies of a periodontal tissue lesion in the rat, untreated or treated with chlorhexidine digluconate. Kenworthy, R., Baverel, M. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Analysis of chondroitin sulfate isomers in the periodontium of the monkey using high-performance liquid chromatography. Okazaki, J., Kamada, A., Gonda, Y., Sakaki, T. J. Periodont. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. The effect of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hemodialysis therapy on alveolar bone and periodontium. Frankenthal, S., Nakhoul, F., Machtei, E.E., Green, J., Ardekian, L., Laufer, D., Peled, M. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Targets for steroid hormone mediated actions of periodontal pathogens, cytokines and therapeutic agents: some implications on tissue turnover in the periodontium. Soory, M. Current drug targets. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Modification of stresses surrounding abutment teeth for fixed partial dentures induced by various levels of periodontal support: a photoelastic study. Sulik, W.D., White, J.T. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry. (1981) [Pubmed]
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