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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ascorbate is a potent antioxidant against peroxynitrite-induced oxidation reactions. Evidence that ascorbate acts by re-reducing substrate radicals produced by peroxynitrite.

Peroxynitrite (ONOO(((-)))/ONOOH) is expected in vivo to react predominantly with CO(2), thereby yielding NO(2)(.) and CO(3) radicals. We studied the inhibitory effects of ascorbate on both NADH and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) oxidation by peroxynitrite generated in situ from 3-morpholinosydnonimine N-ethylcarbamide (SIN-1). SIN-1 (150 micrometer)-mediated oxidation of NADH (200 micrometer) was half-maximally inhibited by low ascorbate concentrations (61-75 micrometer), both in the absence and presence of CO(2). Control experiments performed with thiols indicated both the very high antioxidative efficiency of ascorbate and that in the presence of CO(2) in situ-generated peroxynitrite exclusively oxidized NADH via the CO(3) radical. This fact is attributed to the formation of peroxynitrate (O(2)NOO(-)/O(2)NOOH) from reaction of NO(2)(.) with O(2), which is formed from reaction of CO(3) with NADH. SIN-1 (25 micrometer)-derived oxidation of DHR was half-maximally inhibited by surprisingly low ascorbate concentrations (6-7 micrometer), irrespective of the presence of CO(2). Control experiments performed with authentic peroxynitrite revealed that ascorbate was in regard to both thiols and selenocompounds much more effective to protect DHR. The present results demonstrate that ascorbate is highly effective to counteract the oxidizing properties of peroxynitrite in the absence and presence of CO(2) by both terminating CO(3)/HO( small middle dot) reactions and by its repair function. Ascorbate is therefore expected to act intracellulary as a major peroxynitrite antagonist. In addition, a novel, ascorbate-independent protection pathway exists: scavenging of NO(2)(.) by O(2) to yield O(2)NOO(-), which further decomposes into NO(2)(-) and O(2).[1]


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