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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Initiation of human DNA replication in vitro using nuclei from cells arrested at an initiation-competent state.

Initiation of human DNA replication is investigated in vitro, using initiation-competent nuclei isolated from cells arrested in late G(1) phase by a 24-h treatment with 0.5 mm mimosine (Krude, T. (1999) Exp. Cell Res. 247, 148-159). Nuclei isolated from mimosine-arrested HeLa cells initiate semiconservative DNA replication upon incubation in cytosolic extracts from proliferating human cells. Initiation occurs in the absence and presence of a nuclear membrane. The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors roscovitine and olomoucine inhibit initiation of DNA replication, indicating a dependence of initiation on Cdk activity. Cell fractionation shows that cyclins A, E, and Cdk2 are bound to nuclei from mimosine-arrested cells. Exogenously added human cyclin A.Cdk2 and cyclin E.Cdk2 complexes, but not cyclin B1/Cdk1 or cyclin D2/Cdk6, can overcome inhibition of initiation by roscovitine in vitro. Depleting Cdk2 from cytosolic extract does not prevent initiation, demonstrating that cyclin.Cdk2 complexes are not required in the soluble extract, but are provided by the nuclei. Initiation depends further on an essential and soluble activity present in cytosolic extracts from proliferating cells, but not from mimosine-arrested cells, acting together with nuclear cyclin/Cdk2 activity.[1]


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