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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Grb3-3 is up-regulated in HIV-1-infected T-cells and can potentiate cell activation through NFATc.

The MAPK pathway is required for T-cell activation; however, its role in modulating T-cell function following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is poorly understood. In this report, we investigated whether Grb3-3, an isoform of the Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein-2) adaptor molecule that is associated with the MAPK pathway, could be involved. We found that Grb3-3, but not its isoform Grb2, is markedly up-regulated in CD4(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from either in vitro HIV-1-infected cultures or HIV-1-infected human subjects. Analysis of HIV-1 gene products indicated that Tat and Nef, both of which have been implicated in modulating T-cell function, can independently induce expression of Grb3-3. By using NFAT/AP-1, AP-1, or NFAT reporter assays, we found that Grb3-3 can potentiate NFAT (but not AP-1) promoter activity in Jurkat T-cells upon engagement of the T-cell receptor and CD28 co-receptor. In addition, potentiation of NFAT by Grb3-3 is substantially suppressed by MEKK1, a kinase that may play an important role in retaining NFAT in the cytoplasm, and by cyclosporin A. Finally, we also found that Grb3-3 potentiates HIV-1 long terminal (LTR) repeat promoter activity following T-cell receptor stimulation, an effect that can be largely suppressed by cyclosporin A. Taken together, this study indicates that Grb3-3 is a cellular factor that can be up-regulated by HIV-1. In addition, Grb3-3 can also function as a positive factor for T-cell activation and, in doing so, may aid in establishing an intracellular environment that can optimally support HIV-1 replication.[1]


  1. Grb3-3 is up-regulated in HIV-1-infected T-cells and can potentiate cell activation through NFATc. Li, X., Multon, M.C., Henin, Y., Schweighoffer, F., Venot, C., Josef, J., Zhou, C., LaVecchio, J., Stuckert, P., Raab, M., Mhashilkar, A., Tocque, B., Marasco, W.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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