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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of HIV


Psychiatry related information on HIV


High impact information on HIV

  • The chemokine field has also received considerable attention since chemokine receptors were found to act as co-receptors for HIV infection (1) [11].
  • The selectivity of CD4+ cell destruction is due to the specific binding of gp120, the external envelope glycoprotein of HIV, to CD4, initiating viral entry [12].
  • HIV release requires TSG101, a cellular factor that sorts proteins into vesicles that bud into multivesicular bodies (MVB) [13].
  • We now show that HIV Gag p6 contains a second region involved in L domain function that binds AIP1, a homolog of the yeast class E Vps protein Bro1 [14].
  • Nelfinavir, efavirenz, or both after the failure of nucleoside treatment of HIV infection [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of HIV


Biological context of HIV


Anatomical context of HIV

  • During 10 to 68 months of observation, none of the four patients had evidence of infection with HIV type 1 or 2 or human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or II on the basis of epidemiologic, serologic, or polymerase-chain-reaction studies or culture, nor was there any detectable reverse transcriptase activity [26].
  • Amphotropic retrovirus vectors were used to express the HIV envelope glycoprotein in a human CD4+ cell line [27].
  • We show here that expression of HIV envelope proteins allows syncytium formation between cells expressing human but not chimpanzee or macaque CD4 [28].
  • To produce concentrations of zidovudine (AZT) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid that would provide constant inhibition of the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we gave AZT by continuous intravenous infusion to 21 children ranging in age from 14 months to 12 years who had acquired HIV infection through transfusions or perinatally [29].
  • This sCD4 retains the structural and biological properties of CD4 on the cell surface, binds to the envelope glycoprotein (gp110) of HIV and inhibits the binding of virus to CD4+ lymphocytes, resulting in a striking inhibition of virus infectivity [30].

Gene context of HIV

  • Here, we show that the beta-chemokine receptor CKR-5 serves as a cofactor for M-tropic HIV viruses [31].
  • Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into target cells requires both CD4 (ref. 1, 2) and one of a growing number of G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors [32].
  • These results indicate that the increased turnover of CD8+ T cells in HIV-infected subjects is mediated by the HIV envelope protein through the CXCR4 chemokine receptor [33].
  • HIV infection of MVECs stimulated surface expression of CD40 and allowed preferential induction of the vascular cell adhesion molecule VCAM-1 after CD40 triggering [34].
  • Alterations in a yeast protein resembling HIV Tat-binding protein relieve requirement for an acidic activation domain in GAL4 [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HIV


  1. The multifaceted regulation of interleukin-15 expression and the role of this cytokine in NK cell differentiation and host response to intracellular pathogens. Waldmann, T.A., Tagaya, Y. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Efavirenz plus zidovudine and lamivudine, efavirenz plus indinavir, and indinavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults. Study 006 Team. Staszewski, S., Morales-Ramirez, J., Tashima, K.T., Rachlis, A., Skiest, D., Stanford, J., Stryker, R., Johnson, P., Labriola, D.F., Farina, D., Manion, D.J., Ruiz, N.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection. Harris, R.S., Bishop, K.N., Sheehy, A.M., Craig, H.M., Petersen-Mahrt, S.K., Watt, I.N., Neuberger, M.S., Malim, M.H. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. A comparative trial of didanosine or zalcitabine after treatment with zidovudine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. Abrams, D.I., Goldman, A.I., Launer, C., Korvick, J.A., Neaton, J.D., Crane, L.R., Grodesky, M., Wakefield, S., Muth, K., Kornegay, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. The effects on survival of early treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Graham, N.M., Zeger, S.L., Park, L.P., Vermund, S.H., Detels, R., Rinaldo, C.R., Phair, J.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. NF-kappa B activates the HIV promoter in neurons. Rattner, A., Korner, M., Walker, M.D., Citri, Y. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Envelope glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 alters ion transport in astrocytes: implications for AIDS dementia complex. Benos, D.J., Hahn, B.H., Bubien, J.K., Ghosh, S.K., Mashburn, N.A., Chaikin, M.A., Shaw, G.M., Benveniste, E.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Serum Vpr regulates productive infection and latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Levy, D.N., Refaeli, Y., MacGregor, R.R., Weiner, D.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Retrospective analysis of HHV-8 viremia and cellular viral load in HIV-seropositive patients receiving interleukin 2 in combination with antiretroviral therapy. Malnati, M., Broccolo, F., Nozza, S., Sarmati, L., Ghezzi, S., Locatelli, G., Delfanti, F., Capiluppi, B., Careddu, A., Andreoni, M., Monini, P., Poli, G., Lazzarin, A., Lusso, P., Tambussi, G. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Distribution of hepatitis G viremia and antibody response to recombinant proteins with special regard to risk factors in 709 patients. Feucht, H.H., Zöllner, B., Polywka, S., Knödler, B., Schröter, M., Nolte, H., Laufs, R. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. The biology of chemokines and their receptors. Rossi, D., Zlotnik, A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. The CD4-gp120 interaction and AIDS pathogenesis. Capon, D.J., Ward, R.H. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. The protein network of HIV budding. von Schwedler, U.K., Stuchell, M., Müller, B., Ward, D.M., Chung, H.Y., Morita, E., Wang, H.E., Davis, T., He, G.P., Cimbora, D.M., Scott, A., Kräusslich, H.G., Kaplan, J., Morham, S.G., Sundquist, W.I. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding. Strack, B., Calistri, A., Craig, S., Popova, E., Göttlinger, H.G. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Nelfinavir, efavirenz, or both after the failure of nucleoside treatment of HIV infection. Albrecht, M.A., Bosch, R.J., Hammer, S.M., Liou, S.H., Kessler, H., Para, M.F., Eron, J., Valdez, H., Dehlinger, M., Katzenstein, D.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Primary infection with zidovudine-resistant HIV. Hermans, P., Sprecher, S., Clumeck, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment with lamivudine, zidovudine, or both in HIV-positive patients with 200 to 500 CD4+ cells per cubic millimeter. North American HIV Working Party. Eron, J.J., Benoit, S.L., Jemsek, J., MacArthur, R.D., Santana, J., Quinn, J.B., Kuritzkes, D.R., Fallon, M.A., Rubin, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. A controlled trial comparing continued zidovudine with didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Kahn, J.O., Lagakos, S.W., Richman, D.D., Cross, A., Pettinelli, C., Liou, S.H., Brown, M., Volberding, P.A., Crumpacker, C.S., Beall, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Heterosexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in a rural Florida community. Ellerbrock, T.V., Lieb, S., Harrington, P.E., Bush, T.J., Schoenfisch, S.A., Oxtoby, M.J., Howell, J.T., Rogers, M.F., Witte, J.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. Gulick, R.M., Mellors, J.W., Havlir, D., Eron, J.J., Gonzalez, C., McMahon, D., Richman, D.D., Valentine, F.T., Jonas, L., Meibohm, A., Emini, E.A., Chodakewitz, J.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Trans-activation of human immunodeficiency virus occurs via a bimodal mechanism. Cullen, B.R. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. A comparison of immediate with deferred zidovudine therapy for asymptomatic HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell counts of 500 or more per cubic millimeter. AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Volberding, P.A., Lagakos, S.W., Grimes, J.M., Stein, D.S., Rooney, J., Meng, T.C., Fischl, M.A., Collier, A.C., Phair, J.P., Hirsch, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Ethical challenges posed by zidovudine treatment to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. Bayer, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Recommendations on prophylaxis and therapy for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Public Health Service Task Force on Prophylaxis and Therapy for Mycobacterium avium Complex. Masur, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Assembly and release of HIV-1 precursor Pr55gag virus-like particles from recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. Gheysen, D., Jacobs, E., de Foresta, F., Thiriart, C., Francotte, M., Thines, D., De Wilde, M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia--four patients with opportunistic infections and no evidence of HIV infection. Duncan, R.A., von Reyn, C.F., Alliegro, G.M., Toossi, Z., Sugar, A.M., Levitz, S.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Envelope glycoprotein of HIV induces interference and cytolysis resistance in CD4+ cells: mechanism for persistence in AIDS. Stevenson, M., Meier, C., Mann, A.M., Chapman, N., Wasiak, A. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. A CD4 domain important for HIV-mediated syncytium formation lies outside the virus binding site. Camerini, D., Seed, B. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of continuous intravenous infusion of zidovudine (AZT) in children with symptomatic HIV infection. Pizzo, P.A., Eddy, J., Falloon, J., Balis, F.M., Murphy, R.F., Moss, H., Wolters, P., Brouwers, P., Jarosinski, P., Rubin, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. A soluble form of CD4 (T4) protein inhibits AIDS virus infection. Deen, K.C., McDougal, J.S., Inacker, R., Folena-Wasserman, G., Arthos, J., Rosenberg, J., Maddon, P.J., Axel, R., Sweet, R.W. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. A dual-tropic primary HIV-1 isolate that uses fusin and the beta-chemokine receptors CKR-5, CKR-3, and CKR-2b as fusion cofactors. Doranz, B.J., Rucker, J., Yi, Y., Smyth, R.J., Samson, M., Peiper, S.C., Parmentier, M., Collman, R.G., Doms, R.W. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. The role of CCR5 and CCR2 polymorphisms in HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Michael, N.L., Louie, L.G., Rohrbaugh, A.L., Schultz, K.A., Dayhoff, D.E., Wang, C.E., Sheppard, H.W. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Apoptosis of CD8+ T cells is mediated by macrophages through interaction of HIV gp120 with chemokine receptor CXCR4. Herbein, G., Mahlknecht, U., Batliwalla, F., Gregersen, P., Pappas, T., Butler, J., O'Brien, W.A., Verdin, E. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. HIV-1 induction of CD40 on endothelial cells promotes the outgrowth of AIDS-associated B-cell lymphomas. Moses, A.V., Williams, S.E., Strussenberg, J.G., Heneveld, M.L., Ruhl, R.A., Bakke, A.C., Bagby, G.C., Nelson, J.A. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Alterations in a yeast protein resembling HIV Tat-binding protein relieve requirement for an acidic activation domain in GAL4. Swaffield, J.C., Bromberg, J.F., Johnston, S.A. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. Connor, E.M., Sperling, R.S., Gelber, R., Kiselev, P., Scott, G., O'Sullivan, M.J., VanDyke, R., Bey, M., Shearer, W., Jacobson, R.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. The use of viral culture and p24 antigen testing to diagnose human immunodeficiency virus infection in neonates. The HIV Infection in Newborns French Collaborative Study Group. Burgard, M., Mayaux, M.J., Blanche, S., Ferroni, A., Guihard-Moscato, M.L., Allemon, M.C., Ciraru-Vigneron, N., Firtion, G., Floch, C., Guillot, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Vaccination with gp160 in HIV. Oyaizu, N., Chirmule, N., Pahwa, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. A controlled trial of intravenous immune globulin for the prevention of serious bacterial infections in children receiving zidovudine for advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Spector, S.A., Gelber, R.D., McGrath, N., Wara, D., Barzilai, A., Abrams, E., Bryson, Y.J., Dankner, W.M., Livingston, R.A., Connor, E.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. A controlled trial of nonoxynol 9 film to reduce male-to-female transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Roddy, R.E., Zekeng, L., Ryan, K.A., Tamoufé, U., Weir, S.S., Wong, E.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
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