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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

E93 directs steroid-triggered programmed cell death in Drosophila.

Steroid hormones coordinate multiple cellular changes, yet the mechanisms by which these systemic signals are refined into stage- and tissue-specific responses remain poorly understood. Here we show that the Drosophila E93 gene determines the nature of a steroid-induced biological response. E93 mutants possess larval salivary glands that fail to undergo steroid-triggered programmed cell death, and E93 is expressed in cells immediately before the onset of death. E93 protein is bound to the sites of steroid-regulated and cell death genes on polytene chromosomes, and the expression of these genes is defective in E93 mutants. Furthermore, expression of E93 is sufficient to induce programmed cell death. We propose that the steroid induction of E93 determines a programmed cell death response during development.[1]


  1. E93 directs steroid-triggered programmed cell death in Drosophila. Lee, C.Y., Wendel, D.P., Reid, P., Lam, G., Thummel, C.S., Baehrecke, E.H. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
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