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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cytological and molecular analysis in the rare discoglossid species, Alytes muletensis (Sanchiz & Adrover 1977) and its bearing on archaeobatrachian phylogeny.

Cytogenetic and molecular data on Alytes muletensis (Amphibia: Discoglossidae) are compared with other representatives of archaeobatrachian frogs: Bombina variegata pachypus, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Xenopus laevis, and Discoglossus. A. muletensis has the karyotype typical for the genus Alytes, 38 elements with either one or two arms, some of which can be considered as 'microchromosomes'. The NORs are located on the telomeres of the tenth chromosome pair which agrees with the state in A. obstetricians but differs from A. cisternasii reflecting phylogenetic affinities. C-banding and staining with DAPI and chromomycin A3 revealed important blocks of telomeric CMA-positive heterochromatin on the smaller chromosomes of Alytes, similar to the state found in Discoglossus. Phylogenetic analysis of 750 bp of fragments of the mitochondrial 16S and 12S rRNA genes corroborated that Discoglossus and Alytes are sister taxa which together probably form the sister group of the Bombinatorinae. Centromeric heterochromatin in Alytes may be responsible for the retention of a plesiomorphic asymmetric karyotype which independently has evolved into a symmetric karyotype through centric fusions in Bombina and Discoglossus. The HindIII satellite DNA family was present in all archaeobatrachians studied but absent in hyloid and ranoid neobatrachians.[1]


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