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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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High impact information on Amphibia

  • The antibody also reacts with corresponding cytokeratin polypeptides in a broad range of species including man, cow, chick, and amphibia but shows only limited reactivity with only a few rodent cytokeratins [1].
  • Since amphibia diverged from mammals at least 250 million years ago, the data show that evolutionary pressure has acted to conserve the structure of DBI in the vertebrate phylum [2].
  • Results of developmental RNA blot analysis contradict the long-held biological role for PRL as a juvenilizing hormone in amphibia [3].
  • In summary, we found that in spite of remarkable spatiotemporal differences, beta-catenin acts in the chick in a manner similar to that in fish and amphibia [4].
  • Thyroid-hormone-dependent development of the neuroretina has principally been described in amphibia [5].

Biological context of Amphibia


Anatomical context of Amphibia

  • Whilst it may be that adenosine inhibits ACh release by different mechanisms at amphibia and mammalian neuromuscular junctions, it is also possible that the secretory apparatus is more intimately coupled to the Ca(2+) channels in the mouse such that an effect on the secretory machinery is reflected as changes in Ca(2+) currents [11].
  • Moreover, these data lend support to the view that SGK1 contributes to the defense of extracellular fluid volume and tonicity in amphibia by mediating a component of the hypotonic induction of distal nephron Na+ transport [12].
  • In the present study, we show that extracellular matrix material secreted by the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor cell line (matrigel) supports axonal growth from explanted peripheral nerve-dorsal root ganglia (DRG) preparations of adult mice and amphibia in serum-free media, without addition of growth factors [13].
  • In the diencephalon of two species of Gymnophiona (Amphibia) two neurosecretory nuclei were examined with histological (Alcian Blue, Aldehyde Fuchsin, Brookes Trichrome stain) and enzyme histochemical techniques (acid phosphatase, alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) [14].
  • Worm-like structures are not seen in Amphibia and endogenous peroxidase activity is very weak in these animals compared with Mammalia. The most important difference lies in the ability of Amphibia Kupffer cells to produce melanins: in fact the tyrosinase gene is expressed, "melanosome centers" are present, and dopa oxidase activity is demonstrable [15].

Associations of Amphibia with chemical compounds

  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel analysis demonstrated that the ROS-1 immunoadsorbates from mammals, fish, and amphibia contained peptides of similar mobility [16].
  • Adenosine inhibits neurotransmitter secretion from motor nerves by an effect on the secretory apparatus in amphibia [17].
  • The reabsorption of glucose from the renal tubule in Amphibia and the action of phlorhizin upon it [18].
  • Studies were conducted to explore vitamin A transport in the non-mammalian vertebrates, especially Pisces, Amphibia, and Reptilia, and to isolate and partially characterize piscine retinol-binding protein [19].
  • Amphibian neurotensin (NT) is not xenopsin (XP): dual presence of NT-like and XP-like peptides in various amphibia [20].

Gene context of Amphibia

  • Together with the recent elucidation of a CRF-like molecule in the frog diencephalon, these results suggest that, in Amphibia, CRF and AVP exert their stimulatory action specifically on distal lobe corticotrophs [21].
  • Both are present in endotherms (mammals and birds), but so far only UCP2 has been identified in ectothermic vertebrates (fish and amphibia) [22].
  • This could indicate that the main function of sauvagine does not involve ACTH regulation and suggests that an additional CRF-like peptide exists in Amphibia [23].
  • Antisera detected dystrophin with molecular mass close to that of the human in all terrestrial vertebrates and amphibia studied [24].
  • However, only one of the ALB-like molecules in the fish and amphibia is glycosylated [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Amphibia

  • Northern blot hybridization analyses showed that the mRNA encoding this novel protein C2 was expressed in all the rat tissues examined and in a variety of eukaryotic organisms such as amphibia, birds, and mammals with slight species-specific differences in size.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[26]


  1. Detection of a cytokeratin determinant common to diverse epithelial cells by a broadly cross-reacting monoclonal antibody. Gigi, O., Geiger, B., Eshhar, Z., Moll, R., Schmid, E., Winter, S., Schiller, D.L., Franke, W.W. EMBO J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Frog diazepam-binding inhibitor: peptide sequence, cDNA cloning, and expression in the brain. Lihrmann, I., Plaquevent, J.C., Tostivint, H., Raijmakers, R., Tonon, M.C., Conlon, J.M., Vaudry, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of the Xenopus laevis prolactin and thyrotropin genes during metamorphosis. Buckbinder, L., Brown, D.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Nuclear beta-catenin and the development of bilateral symmetry in normal and LiCl-exposed chick embryos. Roeser, T., Stein, S., Kessel, M. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Thyroid hormone receptors in chick retinal development: differential expression of mRNAs for alpha and N-terminal variant beta receptors. Sjöberg, M., Vennström, B., Forrest, D. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of intermediate filament proteins during development of Xenopus laevis. II. Identification and molecular characterization of desmin. Herrmann, H., Fouquet, B., Franke, W.W. Development (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Action potentials in epithelial taste receptor cells induced by mucosal calcium. Avenet, P., Lindemann, B. J. Membr. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Amino acid sequence diversity of pancreatic polypeptide among the amphibia. Conlon, J.M., Platz, J.E., Chartrel, N., Vaudry, H., Nielsen, P.F. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Adaptive evolution of water homeostasis regulation in amphibians: vasotocin and hydrins. Acher, R., Chauvet, J., Rouillé, Y. Biol. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Physiological significance of catalase and glutathione peroxidases, and in vivo peroxidation, in selected tissues of the toad Discoglossus pictus (Amphibia) during acclimation to normobaric hyperoxia. Barja de Quiroga, G., Gil, P., López-Torres, M. J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Adenosine decreases both presynaptic calcium currents and neurotransmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Silinsky, E.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Hypotonic induction of SGK1 and Na+ transport in A6 cells. Rozansky, D.J., Wang, J., Doan, N., Purdy, T., Faulk, T., Bhargava, A., Dawson, K., Pearce, D. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of extracellular matrix components on axonal outgrowth from peripheral nerves of adult animals in vitro. Tonge, D.A., Golding, J.P., Edbladh, M., Kroon, M., Ekström, P.E., Edström, A. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Histological and histochemical observations on the neurosecretory cells in the diencephalon of Chthonerpeton indistinctum and Ichthyophis paucisulcus (Gymnophiona, Amphibia). Welsch, U., Schubert, C., Tan, S.H. Cell Tissue Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Amphibia Kupffer cells. Sichel, G., Scalia, M., Corsaro, C. Microsc. Res. Tech. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Immunologic characterization of the photoreceptor outer segment cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. Hurwitz, R.L., Bunt-Milam, A.H., Beavo, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Modulation of calcium currents is eliminated after cleavage of a strategic component of the mammalian secretory apparatus. Silinsky, E.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Micropuncture: unlocking the secrets of renal function. Sands, J.M. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Vitamin A transport in plasma of the non-mammalian vertebrates: isolation and partial characterization of piscine retinol-binding protein. Shidoji, Y., Muto, Y. J. Lipid Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Amphibian neurotensin (NT) is not xenopsin (XP): dual presence of NT-like and XP-like peptides in various amphibia. Carraway, R., Ruane, S.E., Feurle, G.E., Taylor, S. Endocrinology (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparative effects of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and related neuropeptides on the secretion of ACTH and alpha-MSH by frog anterior pituitary cells and neurointermediate lobes in vitro. Tonon, M.C., Cuet, P., Lamacz, M., Jégou, S., Côté, J., Gouteaux, L., Ling, N., Pelletier, G., Vaudry, H. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Uncoupling protein 1 in fish uncovers an ancient evolutionary history of mammalian nonshivering thermogenesis. Jastroch, M., Wuertz, S., Kloas, W., Klingenspor, M. Physiol. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of the genomic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) gene from Xenopus laevis: two members of the CRF family exist in amphibians. Stenzel-Poore, M.P., Heldwein, K.A., Stenzel, P., Lee, S., Vale, W.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Evolutionary conservation of the dystrophin central rod domain. Sherratt, T.G., Vulliamy, T., Strong, P.N. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. The phylogeny of alpha-fetoprotein in vertebrates: survey of biochemical and physiological data. Mizejewski, G.J. Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular cloning of cDNA for proteasomes (multicatalytic proteinase complexes) from rat liver: primary structure of the largest component (C2). Fujiwara, T., Tanaka, K., Kumatori, A., Shin, S., Yoshimura, T., Ichihara, A., Tokunaga, F., Aruga, R., Iwanaga, S., Kakizuka, A. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
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