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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Repair of oxidative DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster: identification and characterization of dOgg1, a second DNA glycosylase activity for 8-hydroxyguanine and formamidopyrimidines.

In Drosophila, the S3 ribosomal protein has been shown to act as a DNA glycosylase/AP lyase capable of releasing 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua) in damaged DNA. Here we describe a second Drosophila protein (dOgg1) with 8-OH-Gua and abasic (AP) site DNA repair activities. The Drosophila OGG1 gene codes for a protein of 327 amino acids, which shows 33 and 37% identity with the yeast and human Ogg1 proteins, respectively. The DNA glycosylase activity of purified dOgg1 was investigated using gamma-irradiated DNA and gas chromatography/isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC/IDMS). The dOgg1 protein excises 8-OH-Gua and 2, 6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua) from gamma-irradiated DNA. with k(ca)(t)/K:(M) values of 21.0 x 10(-5) and 11.2 x 10(-5) (min(-1) nM(-1)), respectively. Enzymatic assays using oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing a single lesion show that dOgg1 displays a marked preference for DNA duplexes containing 8-OH-Gua, 8-OH-Ade or an AP site placed opposite a cytosine. The cleavage of the 8-OH-Gua-containing strand results from the excision of the damaged base followed by a ss-elimination reaction at the 3'-side of the resulting AP site. Cleavage of 8-OH-Gua.C duplex involves the formation of a reaction intermediate that is converted into a stable covalent adduct in the presence of sodium borohydre. dOgg1 complements the mutator phenotype of fpg mutY mutants of Escherichia coli. Whole-mount in situ hybridizations on tissues at different stages of Drosophila development reveal that the dOGG1 messenger is expressed uniformly at a low level in cells in which mitotic division occurs. Therefore, Drosophila possesses two DNA glycosylase activities that can excise 8-OH-Gua and formamidopyrimidines from DNA, dOgg1 and the ribosomal protein S3.[1]


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