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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Rat erythrocyte morphological changes after gavage dosing with 2-butoxyethanol: a comparison with the in vitro effects of butoxyacetic acid on rat and human erythrocytes.

Rats exposed to 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) develop hemolysis preceded by red blood cell swelling and shape changes. In this study effects on red blood cell morphology of dosing rats with 2-BE by gavage were compared with the effects of incubation of rat erythrocytes in vitro with the principal metabolite of 2-BE, butoxyacetic acid (BAA). Morphology was assessed by bright-field and phase microscopy of Wright's stained blood smears and glutaraldehyde-fixed cells suspended in plasma or buffer. In vivo exposure to 2-BE resulted in stomatocytosis and spherocytosis in blood smears and cup-shaped cells and spherocytosis in the fixed samples. In vitro incubation with BAA produced erythrocytes with cup shapes, spherocytosis and red blood cell ghosts in fixed samples. The stomatocytes observed in the blood smears appear to be the morphological equivalents of the cup-shaped cells observed in fixed samples. A variable degree of echinocytosis was observed in blood smears from animals exposed to 2-BE and in the in vitro experiments with BAA. Stomatocytes, cup-shaped cells, and spherocytes are the principal morphological features of erythrocytes from rats exposed to 2-BE or in vitro exposure to BAA. In comparison, human red blood cells incubated with up to 2.0 mM BAA exhibited none of the morphological changes observed in rat erythrocytes. 2-Butoxyethanol in vivo and BAA in vitro cause similar changes in rat red blood cell morphology, adding further evidence to support the primary role of BAA in the hemolytic effect of 2-BE exposure in the rat.[1]


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