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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Isochromosome consisting of terminal short arm and proximal long arm X in a girl with short stature.

A 16-year-old girl with short stature, short neck, shield chest, and cubitus valgus was studied. FISH analyses of her structurally altered X chromosome showed a der(X)- (wcpX+,TelXp/Yp++,SHOX++,STS++,KAL-, 37A12-,DXZ1+,XIST++,97L7++,300O13-,404F- 18-,417G15-,404F18-,140A-,TelXq/Yq-). These results, together with the high-resolution banding analysis, indicated her karyotype to be 46,X,der(X)(Xpter-->Xp22.3::Xq22.3--> cen-->Xq22.3::Xp22.3-->Xpter). The der(X) was an isochromosome, consisting of duplicated terminal short arms and duplicated proximal long arms. This in turn suggested that the chromosome was formed through pericentric inversion of an X chromosome, followed by isochromosome formation through sister chromatid exchange at Xp, close to the centromere. Replication R-banding analysis showed that the abnormal X chromosome was late replicating. Analysis of digestion patterns with a methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease of the phosphoglycerate kinase 1 gene, located in Xq13.3, indicated that its inactivation patterns were completely skewed.[1]


  1. Isochromosome consisting of terminal short arm and proximal long arm X in a girl with short stature. Uehara, S., Hanew, K., Harada, N., Yamamori, S., Nata, M., Niikawa, N., Okamura, K. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
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