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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Centromere


Psychiatry related information on Centromere


High impact information on Centromere

  • Recent experiments shed important insight into how Mad2 molecules bound to centromeres through their association with a protein called Mad1 might be transferred to Cdc20 and thereby inhibit securin's destruction [7].
  • Roberts syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies, tetraphocomelia and loss of cohesion at heterochromatic regions of centromeres and the Y chromosome [8].
  • Histone H3 methylated at Lys4, which defines euchromatin, was not only distributed across most of the chromosomal landscape but was also present at the centromere core, the site of kinetochore assembly [9].
  • Mis16 and Mis18 are required for CENP-A loading and histone deacetylation at centromeres [10].
  • Vertebrate shugoshin links sister centromere cohesion and kinetochore microtubule stability in mitosis [11].

Biological context of Centromere


Anatomical context of Centromere


Associations of Centromere with chemical compounds

  • A putative centromere has been identified that has a core region of about 2 kilobases with an extremely high (adenine + thymidine) composition and arrays of tandem repeats [22].
  • Analysis of spindles within leptomycin B-treated cells shows that their centromeres were under increased tension [23].
  • We now find that in MKlp2 but not MKlp1-depleted cells the Aurora B-INCENP complex remains at the centromeres and fails to relocate to the central spindle [24].
  • A human centromere protein, CENP-B, has a DNA binding domain containing four potential alpha helices at the NH2 terminus, which is separable from dimerizing activity [25].
  • In response, H3 lysine 9 dimethylation, but not trimethylation, was markedly decreased at all centromeres examined [26].

Gene context of Centromere

  • A fusion of mei-S332 to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is fully functional and localizes specifically to the centromere region of meiotic chromosomes [27].
  • We propose that coupled activation and destruction link the assembly of Cbf3p to the duplication of centromeres in S phase [28].
  • In addition, we observed tetrads in which conversion events extended through the centromere to include a marker on the opposite side from URA3 [29].
  • By looking for mutants that separate sister centromeres in the presence of Pds1p, this and a previous study have identified six proteins essential for establishing or maintaining sister chromatid cohesion [30].
  • This observation is consistent with evidence that MCK1 plays a role in governing centromere function during vegetative growth as well as sporulation [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Centromere


  1. Centromere protein B null mice are mitotically and meiotically normal but have lower body and testis weights. Hudson, D.F., Fowler, K.J., Earle, E., Saffery, R., Kalitsis, P., Trowell, H., Hill, J., Wreford, N.G., de Kretser, D.M., Cancilla, M.R., Howman, E., Hii, L., Cutts, S.M., Irvine, D.V., Choo, K.H. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Diverse origins of multiple ovarian teratomas in a single individual. Carritt, B., Parrington, J.M., Welch, H.M., Povey, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. The centromere kinesin-like protein, CENP-E. An autoantigen in systemic sclerosis. Rattner, J.B., Rees, J., Arnett, F.C., Reveille, J.D., Goldstein, R., Fritzler, M.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Antinuclear antibodies in localized scleroderma. Takehara, K., Moroi, Y., Nakabayashi, Y., Ishibashi, Y. Arthritis Rheum. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Centromeric chromosomal translocations show tissue-specific differences between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. Hermsen, M., Snijders, A., Guervós, M.A., Taenzer, S., Koerner, U., Baak, J., Pinkel, D., Albertson, D., van Diest, P., Meijer, G., Schrock, E. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Alivin 1, a novel neuronal activity-dependent gene, inhibits apoptosis and promotes survival of cerebellar granule neurons. Ono, T., Sekino-Suzuki, N., Kikkawa, Y., Yonekawa, H., Kawashima, S. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. How do so few control so many? Nasmyth, K. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Roberts syndrome is caused by mutations in ESCO2, a human homolog of yeast ECO1 that is essential for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Vega, H., Waisfisz, Q., Gordillo, M., Sakai, N., Yanagihara, I., Yamada, M., van Gosliga, D., Kayserili, H., Xu, C., Ozono, K., Jabs, E.W., Inui, K., Joenje, H. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Comprehensive analysis of heterochromatin- and RNAi-mediated epigenetic control of the fission yeast genome. Cam, H.P., Sugiyama, T., Chen, E.S., Chen, X., FitzGerald, P.C., Grewal, S.I. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Mis16 and Mis18 are required for CENP-A loading and histone deacetylation at centromeres. Hayashi, T., Fujita, Y., Iwasaki, O., Adachi, Y., Takahashi, K., Yanagida, M. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Vertebrate shugoshin links sister centromere cohesion and kinetochore microtubule stability in mitosis. Salic, A., Waters, J.C., Mitchison, T.J. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Localization of 5-methylcytosine in human metaphase chromosomes by immunoelectron microscopy. Lubit, B.W., Pham, T.D., Miller, O.J., Erlanger, B.F. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Separation of sister chromatids in mitosis requires the Drosophila pimples product, a protein degraded after the metaphase/anaphase transition. Stratmann, R., Lehner, C.F. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Two distinct pathways remove mammalian cohesin from chromosome arms in prophase and from centromeres in anaphase. Waizenegger, I.C., Hauf, S., Meinke, A., Peters, J.M. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Localization of DNA sequences required for human centromere function through an analysis of rearranged Y chromosomes. Tyler-Smith, C., Oakey, R.J., Larin, Z., Fisher, R.B., Crocker, M., Affara, N.A., Ferguson-Smith, M.A., Muenke, M., Zuffardi, O., Jobling, M.A. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Centromere-dependent binding of yeast minichromosomes to microtubules in vitro. Kingsbury, J., Koshland, D. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. CENP-H, a constitutive centromere component, is required for centromere targeting of CENP-C in vertebrate cells. Fukagawa, T., Mikami, Y., Nishihashi, A., Regnier, V., Haraguchi, T., Hiraoka, Y., Sugata, N., Todokoro, K., Brown, W., Ikemura, T. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Microinjected centromere [corrected] kinetochore antibodies interfere with chromosome movement in meiotic and mitotic mouse oocytes. Simerly, C., Balczon, R., Brinkley, B.R., Schatten, G. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Human Orc2 localizes to centrosomes, centromeres and heterochromatin during chromosome inheritance. Prasanth, S.G., Prasanth, K.V., Siddiqui, K., Spector, D.L., Stillman, B. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The Ndc80p complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains conserved centromere components and has a function in chromosome segregation. Wigge, P.A., Kilmartin, J.V. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Meiotic cohesion requires accumulation of ORD on chromosomes before condensation. Balicky, E.M., Endres, M.W., Lai, C., Bickel, S.E. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. The complete nucleotide sequence of chromosome 3 of Plasmodium falciparum. Bowman, S., Lawson, D., Basham, D., Brown, D., Chillingworth, T., Churcher, C.M., Craig, A., Davies, R.M., Devlin, K., Feltwell, T., Gentles, S., Gwilliam, R., Hamlin, N., Harris, D., Holroyd, S., Hornsby, T., Horrocks, P., Jagels, K., Jassal, B., Kyes, S., McLean, J., Moule, S., Mungall, K., Murphy, L., Oliver, K., Quail, M.A., Rajandream, M.A., Rutter, S., Skelton, J., Squares, R., Squares, S., Sulston, J.E., Whitehead, S., Woodward, J.R., Newbold, C., Barrell, B.G. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Crm1 is a mitotic effector of Ran-GTP in somatic cells. Arnaoutov, A., Azuma, Y., Ribbeck, K., Joseph, J., Boyarchuk, Y., Karpova, T., McNally, J., Dasso, M. Nat. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Relocation of Aurora B from centromeres to the central spindle at the metaphase to anaphase transition requires MKlp2. Gruneberg, U., Neef, R., Honda, R., Nigg, E.A., Barr, F.A. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. A human centromere protein, CENP-B, has a DNA binding domain containing four potential alpha helices at the NH2 terminus, which is separable from dimerizing activity. Yoda, K., Kitagawa, K., Masumoto, H., Muro, Y., Okazaki, T. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Human centromeric chromatin is a dynamic chromosomal domain that can spread over noncentromeric DNA. Lam, A.L., Boivin, C.D., Bonney, C.F., Rudd, M.K., Sullivan, B.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Mei-S332, a Drosophila protein required for sister-chromatid cohesion, can localize to meiotic centromere regions. Kerrebrock, A.W., Moore, D.P., Wu, J.S., Orr-Weaver, T.L. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Regulating the yeast kinetochore by ubiquitin-dependent degradation and Skp1p-mediated phosphorylation. Kaplan, K.B., Hyman, A.A., Sorger, P.K. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Meiotic recombination within the centromere of a yeast chromosome. Symington, L.S., Petes, T.D. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Yeast cohesin complex requires a conserved protein, Eco1p(Ctf7), to establish cohesion between sister chromatids during DNA replication. Tóth, A., Ciosk, R., Uhlmann, F., Galova, M., Schleiffer, A., Nasmyth, K. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. The yeast MCK1 gene encodes a protein kinase homolog that activates early meiotic gene expression. Neigeborn, L., Mitchell, A.P. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. CENP-C, an autoantigen in scleroderma, is a component of the human inner kinetochore plate. Saitoh, H., Tomkiel, J., Cooke, C.A., Ratrie, H., Maurer, M., Rothfield, N.F., Earnshaw, W.C. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Budding yeast centromere composition and assembly as revealed by in vivo cross-linking. Meluh, P.B., Koshland, D. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. The centromere-kinetochore complex: a repeat subunit model. Zinkowski, R.P., Meyne, J., Brinkley, B.R. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. The microtubule-dependent motor centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E) is an integral component of kinetochore corona fibers that link centromeres to spindle microtubules. Yao, X., Anderson, K.L., Cleveland, D.W. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Molecular cloning of cDNA for CENP-B, the major human centromere autoantigen. Earnshaw, W.C., Sullivan, K.F., Machlin, P.S., Cooke, C.A., Kaiser, D.A., Pollard, T.D., Rothfield, N.F., Cleveland, D.W. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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