The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Galactose metabolism in mice with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency: sucklings and 7-week-old animals fed a high-galactose diet.

Mice deficient in galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) demonstrate abnormal galactose metabolism but no obvious clinical phenotype. To further dissect the pathways of galactose metabolism in these animals, galactose oxidation and metabolite levels were studied in 16-day-old sucklings and the effect of a 4 week prior exposure to a 40% glucose or 40% galactose diet was determined in 7-week-old mice. Suckling GALT-deficient (G/G) mice slowly oxidized [1-14C]galactose to 14CO2, 4.0% of the dose when fed and 7.9% when fasted compared to normal animals 38.3 and 36.4% in 4 h, respectively. Plasma of G/G sucklings contained 11.1 mM galactose and erythrocyte galactose 1-phosphate levels were 28.2 and 31.9 mg/dl packed cells. Galactose, galactitol, galactonate, and galactose 1-phosphate were found in G/G suckling mouse tissues. The tissue galactose concentrations were 10% or less of that in plasma, suggesting that there was limited cellular entry of galactose. In 7-week-old fasted mice with 4 weeks prior exposure to glucose or galactose-containing diet, 4-h oxidation was 12.9 and 15.0% of the administered radiolabeled galactose, respectively. Normal animals oxidized 33.9 and 37.9% of the dose when fed the same diets, respectively. The ability of G/G mice to oxidize galactose in the absence of GALT activity suggests the presence of alternate metabolic pathways for galactose disposition. G/G mice fed the galactose-free 40% glucose diet had erythrocyte galactose 1-phosphate levels ranging from 6.4 to 17.7 mg/dl packed cells and detectable galactose and galactose metabolites in tissues, suggesting that these animals endogenously produced galactose. The plasma of 40% galactose-fed G/G mice contained 9.1 mM galactose with red blood cell galactose 1-phosphate averaging 43.6 mg/dl. Tissues of these animals also contained high levels of galactose and galactose 1-phosphate. Liver contained over 4 micromol/g galactonate but little galactitol. Despite the elevated galactose and galactose 1-phosphate, the animals tolerated the high-galactose diet and were indistinguishable from normal animals, exhibiting no manifestations of galactose toxicity seen in human GALT-deficient galactosemia. The data suggest that high galactose 1-phosphate levels do not cause galactose toxicity and that high galactitol in combination with galactose 1-phosphate may be a prerequisite. Absence of GALT appears necessary but insufficient to produce human galactosemic phenotype.[1]


  1. Galactose metabolism in mice with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency: sucklings and 7-week-old animals fed a high-galactose diet. Ning, C., Reynolds, R., Chen, J., Yager, C., Berry, G.T., Leslie, N., Segal, S. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities