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Chemical Compound Review

ZINC GLUCONATE     2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid

Synonyms: Hexonic acid, AGN-PC-009XOT, AG-D-47837, NSC-77381, NSC-231889, ...
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Disease relevance of LS-2383

  • Quinidine gluconate is more widely available than quinine in many countries, and our findings show that it is effective in severe falciparum malaria [1].
  • To examine the effectiveness and pharmacokinetics of quinidine for this use, we treated 14 patients who had severe falciparum malaria with intravenous quinidine gluconate; a loading dose of 15 mg of the base per kilogram of body weight was followed by 7.5 mg per kilogram every eight hours [1].
  • Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold in children: a randomized controlled trial [2].
  • The results confirm that L tropica is a co-endemic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in India, and may shed light on the rising frequency of therapeutic unresponsiveness to sodium antimony gluconate, which complicates treatment of this lethal disease [3].
  • Gluconate appeared to be a major carbon source used by E. coli MG1655 to colonize, having an impact on both the initiation and maintenance stages [4].

Psychiatry related information on LS-2383


High impact information on LS-2383


Chemical compound and disease context of LS-2383


Biological context of LS-2383

  • S1 nuclease analysis indicated that the mRNA of this operon is synthesized in the gntR1 strain and amounts of mRNA are not changed very much by gluconate, which acts as an inducer in the wild-type gene [17].
  • Repression of the expression of cat-86 gene, encoded in the vector portion of a constructed plasmid (pgnt21), that is under the control of the gnt promoter was removed by gluconate [17].
  • Depressant effects of quinidine gluconate on left ventricular function in conscious dogs with and without volume overload [18].
  • Removal of 1 mM Ca2+ or replacement of chloride by gluconate in the pipette filling solution had little effect on the slope conductance at the resting potential or on the estimated reversed potential [19].
  • The enzyme is able to act upon a broad range of aldose sugars, encompassing hexoses, pentoses, disaccharides, and trisaccharides, and is able to oxidize glucose to gluconolactone with subsequent hydrolysis to gluconic acid [20].

Anatomical context of LS-2383

  • When respiring rat liver mitochondria are incubated in the presence of Fe(III) gluconate, their DNA (mtDNA) relaxes from the supercoiled to the open circular form dependent on the iron dose [21].
  • Rapid replacement of 0.15 M K gluconate with 0.15 M choline Cl led to multiphasic Ca2+ release from a heavy fraction of rabbit skeletal muscle microsomes [22].
  • The transporter expressed in oocytes was like that in MDCK cells: it was completely dependent on external sodium and was also anion dependent (Cl- greater than or equal to Br- greater than SCN- much greater than gluconate-) [23].
  • In Bac1 murine macrophages, substitution of extracellular Cl- with gluconate produced a 10-fold increase in the rate and extent of ATP-induced IL-1beta processing and secretion, while reducing the EC50 for ATP by 5-fold [24].
  • Respiration also induced swelling of mitochondria suspended in isoosmotic potassium gluconate solution [25].

Associations of LS-2383 with other chemical compounds

  • Neuronal transport currents were potentiated less than were glial currents when the chaotropic anion thiocyanate was substituted for gluconate in the whole-cell recording pipette, consistent with the previously reported lower anion permeability of EAAC1 and GLT-1 compared with that of GLAST [26].
  • Glucose could be replaced by intravesicular (but not extravesicular) fructose 1,6-diphosphate, gluconate 6-phosphate, or 2-phosphoglycerate, but not by other phosphorylated metabolites, in agreement with the allosteric activating effects of these compounds on HPr(Ser) kinase measured in vitro [27].
  • 2) A series of isogenic strains were made in which in vivo use of thereaction might differ, e.g. a wild type strain versus a mutant lacking 6-phosphogluconate dehydrase, as grown on gluconate; a phosphoglucose isomerase mutant grown on glucose or glycerol [28].
  • In Cl- free (gluconate-based) medium, cells underwent a time-dependent acidification (0.3 pH units) and a long term membrane hyperpolarization (7-10 mV), both of which were greatly enhanced in the presence of the anion blocker, 4,4'-diisothiocyanodihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (H2DIDS) [29].
  • Khafrefungin, which is composed of aldonic acid linked via an ester to a C22 modified alkyl chain, has fungicidal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae [30].

Gene context of LS-2383


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LS-2383

  • To confirm these results in a more physiologic system, transport of [3H]bilirubin was studied in isolated livers perfused with control medium or medium in which Cl- was replaced by gluconate-. Perfusion data analyzed by the model of Goresky, revealed 40-50% reductions in influx and efflux with gluconate- substitution [36].
  • Strikingly, the conventional antileishmanial chemotherapy (sodium antimony gluconate) along with injections of SLDA-pulsed DCs resulted in complete clearance of parasites from both these organs [37].
  • Analysis of the degradation products, by paper electrophoresis and paper chromatography, showed a major radioactive component which behaved like L-gulonic acid [38].
  • Chlorhexidine gluconate is the preferred antiseptic for disinfecting the skin prior to and during intravascular catheterization [39].
  • Chlorhexidine gluconate to cleanse patients in a medical intensive care unit: the effectiveness of source control to reduce the bioburden of vancomycin-resistant enterococci [40].


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  2. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold in children: a randomized controlled trial. Macknin, M.L., Piedmonte, M., Calendine, C., Janosky, J., Wald, E. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Indian kala-azar caused by Leishmania tropica. Sacks, D.L., Kenney, R.T., Kreutzer, R.D., Jaffe, C.L., Gupta, A.K., Sharma, M.C., Sinha, S.P., Neva, F.A., Saran, R. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
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  6. Prevention of nosocomial infection in cardiac surgery by decontamination of the nasopharynx and oropharynx with chlorhexidine gluconate: a randomized controlled trial. Segers, P., Speekenbrink, R.G., Ubbink, D.T., van Ogtrop, M.L., de Mol, B.A. JAMA (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Volume regulation in the bovine lens and cataract. The involvement of chloride channels. Zhang, J.J., Jacob, T.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Intracellular pH during "chemical hypoxia" in cultured rat hepatocytes. Protection by intracellular acidosis against the onset of cell death. Gores, G.J., Nieminen, A.L., Wray, B.E., Herman, B., Lemasters, J.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  10. Quantitative kinetics of development of N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced, altered (hyperplastic) hepatocellular foci resistant to iron accumulation and of their reversion or persistence following removal of carcinogen. Williams, G.M., Watanabe, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
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  12. Elevated glucose 6-phosphate levels are associated with plasmid mutations in vivo. Lee, A.T., Cerami, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of an operator sequence for the Bacillus subtilis gnt operon. Fujita, Y., Miwa, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Impairment of transendothelial leukocyte migration by iron complexes. Sengoelge, G., Kletzmayr, J., Ferrara, I., Perschl, A., Hörl, W.H., Sunder-Plassmann, G. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Membrane topology and site-specific mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa porin OprD. Huang, H., Jeanteur, D., Pattus, F., Hancock, R.E. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. The broad-spectrum activity and efficacy of catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin. Raad, I., Darouiche, R., Hachem, R., Mansouri, M., Bodey, G.P. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. The gluconate operon gnt of Bacillus subtilis encodes its own transcriptional negative regulator. Fujita, Y., Fujita, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Depressant effects of quinidine gluconate on left ventricular function in conscious dogs with and without volume overload. Engler, R.L., Le Winter, M.M., Karliner, J.S. Circulation (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Receptor-activated single channels in intact human platelets. Mahaut-Smith, M.P., Sage, S.O., Rink, T.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Soluble Aldose Sugar Dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli: A HIGHLY EXPOSED ACTIVE SITE CONFERRING BROAD SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY. Southall, S.M., Doel, J.J., Richardson, D.J., Oubrie, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Direct observation of iron-induced conformational changes of mitochondrial DNA by high-resolution field-emission in-lens scanning electron microscopy. Yaffee, M., Walter, P., Richter, C., Müller, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Rapid calcium release from the isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum is triggered via the attached transverse tubular system. Ikemoto, N., Antoniu, B., Kim, D.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of Madin-Darby canine kidney cell Na(+)-and Cl(-)-dependent taurine transporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Uchida, S., Kwon, H.M., Preston, A.S., Handler, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibitory effects of chloride on the activation of caspase-1, IL-1beta secretion, and cytolysis by the P2X7 receptor. Verhoef, P.A., Kertesy, S.B., Lundberg, K., Kahlenberg, J.M., Dubyak, G.R. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  26. Neuronal expression of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in hippocampal microcultures. Mennerick, S., Dhond, R.P., Benz, A., Xu, W., Rothstein, J.D., Danbolt, N.C., Isenberg, K.E., Zorumski, C.F. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Inhibition of the phosphoenolpyruvate:lactose phosphotransferase system and activation of a cytoplasmic sugar-phosphate phosphatase in Lactococcus lactis by ATP-dependent metabolite-activated phosphorylation of serine 46 in the phosphocarrier protein HPr. Ye, J.J., Reizer, J., Cui, X., Saier, M.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. The 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase reaction in Escherichia coli. de Silva, A.O., Fraenkel, D.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Chloride conductive pathways which support electrogenic H+ pumping by Leishmania major promastigotes. Vieira, L., Slotki, I., Cabantchik, Z.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Khafrefungin, a novel inhibitor of sphingolipid synthesis. Mandala, S.M., Thornton, R.A., Rosenbach, M., Milligan, J., Garcia-Calvo, M., Bull, H.G., Kurtz, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. A new metabolic link between fatty acid de novo synthesis and polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthesis. The PHAG gene from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 encodes a 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein-coenzyme a transferase. Rehm, B.H., Krüger, N., Steinbüchel, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Onset of gluconate-H+ symport in Schizosaccharomyces pombe is regulated by the kinases Wis1 and Pka1, and requires the gti1+ gene product. Caspari, T. J. Cell. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Gene organization and transcriptional regulation of the gntRKU operon involved in gluconate uptake and catabolism of Escherichia coli. Izu, H., Adachi, O., Yamada, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Leishmania donovani-Infected Macrophages. Mookerjee Basu, J., Mookerjee, A., Sen, P., Bhaumik, S., Sen, P., Banerjee, S., Naskar, K., Choudhuri, S.K., Saha, B., Raha, S., Roy, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular genetic characterization of the Escherichia coli gntT gene of GntI, the main system for gluconate metabolism. Porco, A., Peekhaus, N., Bausch, C., Tong, S., Isturiz, T., Conway, T. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Influence of Cl- on organic anion transport in short-term cultured rat hepatocytes and isolated perfused rat liver. Wolkoff, A.W., Samuelson, A.C., Johansen, K.L., Nakata, R., Withers, D.M., Sosiak, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  37. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy combined with antimony-based chemotherapy cures established murine visceral leishmaniasis. Ghosh, M., Pal, C., Ray, M., Maitra, S., Mandal, L., Bandyopadhyay, S. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Cleavage of macromolecular heparin by an enzyme from mouse mastocytoma. Ogren, S., Lindahl, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
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  40. Chlorhexidine gluconate to cleanse patients in a medical intensive care unit: the effectiveness of source control to reduce the bioburden of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Vernon, M.O., Hayden, M.K., Trick, W.E., Hayes, R.A., Blom, D.W., Weinstein, R.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
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