The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characterization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in human lymphocytes.

The effect of L-glutamate (Glu) on human lymphocyte function was studied by measuring anti-CD(3) monoclonal antibody (mAb) or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) rise (Fura-2 method), and cell proliferation (MTT assay). Glu (0.001 - 100 microM) did not modify basal lymphocyte [Ca(2+)](i), but significantly potentiated the effects of anti-CD(3) mAb or PHA. Maximal [Ca(2+)](i) rises over resting cells were: 165+/-8 and 247+/-10 nM at 3.0x10(-2) mg ml(-1) anti-CD(3) mAb; 201+/-4 and 266+/-9 nM at 5.0x10(-2) mg ml(-1) PHA, in the absence or presence of 1 microM Glu, respectively. The Glu effect showed a bell-shape concentration-dependent relationship, with a maximum (+90+/-3% for anti-CD(3) mAb and +57+/-2% for PHA over Glu-untreated cells) at 1 microM. Non-NMDA receptor agonists (1 microM) showed a greater efficacy (+76+/-2% for (S)-AMPA; +78+/-4% for KA), if compared to NMDA (+46+/-2%), or Glu itself. Ionotropic Glu receptor antagonists completely inhibited the effects of the corresponding specific receptor agonists (1 microM). The IC(50) values calculated were: 0.9 microM for D-AP5; 0.6 microM for (+)-MK801; 0.3 microM for NBQX. Both NBQX and KYNA were able to abolish Glu effect. The IC(50s) calculated were: 3.4 microM for NBQX; 0.4 microM for KYNA. Glu (0.1 - 1 mM) did not change the resting cell proliferation, whereas Glu (1 mM) significant inhibited (-27+/-4%) PHA (1.0x10(-2) mg ml(-1))-induced lymphocyte proliferation at 72 h. In conclusion, human lymphocytes express ionotropic Glu receptors functionally operating as modulators of cell activation.[1]


  1. Characterization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in human lymphocytes. Lombardi, G., Dianzani, C., Miglio, G., Canonico, P.L., Fantozzi, R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities