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Chemical Compound Review

glutamate     (2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid

Synonyms: Glutaton, glutacid, Aciglut, Glusate, Glutamicol, ...
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Disease relevance of POLYGLUTAMIC ACID

  • Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with antisense oligonucleotides to glutamine synthetase mRNA inhibits glutamine synthetase activity, formation of the poly-L-glutamate/glutamine cell wall structure, and bacterial replication [1].
  • The inhibitory effect of M protein was manifested for both Pardaxin-induced and Triton-induced transcription at high concentrations of vesicular stomatitis virions; however, unlike the Triton-induced reaction, the inhibitory effect of M protein was not reversed by polyglutamic acid added to the Pardaxin-induced transcription reaction [2].
  • The synthesis of polyglutamic acid (PGA) was repressed by exogenous glutamate in strains of Bacillus licheniformis but not in strains of Bacillus subtilis, indicating a clear difference in the regulation of synthesis of capsular slime in these two species [3].
  • It is noteworthy that in this experimental form of peliosis hepatis and in that observed earlier in rats treated with basic polyglutamic acid derivatives, severe defibrination was detected and, as in most human cases, not only the liver but other organs were also involved in the peliotic lesions [4].

High impact information on POLYGLUTAMIC ACID


Biological context of POLYGLUTAMIC ACID


Anatomical context of POLYGLUTAMIC ACID


Associations of POLYGLUTAMIC ACID with other chemical compounds



  • The XNF-L was very similar to mouse NF-L, with a 77% sequence identity in the rod domain and the presence of a polyglutamic acid region in the tail domain, characteristic of type IV neurofilament proteins [23].
  • Under similar conditions, other proteins such as G-actin, protein kinase C, polyglutamic acid, and gelatin did not bind to Abeta [24].
  • JEAP contained a polyglutamic acid repeat at the N-terminal region, a coiled-coil domain at the middle region, and a consensus motif for binding to PDZ domains at the C-terminal region [25].
  • Sequencing of the loci encoding amylase, cellulase, chitinases, and proteases, as well as the degS/degU operon, which is instrumental in the regulation of degradative enzymes, and the pga operon, which is responsible for polyglutamic acid production, revealed no differences [26].
  • Under similar conditions, other proteins such as apolipoprotein E, gelsolin and polyglutamic acid did not interact with NBD-PA [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of POLYGLUTAMIC ACID

  • Poly-L-glutamate did not enhance gene transfer in the absence of electroporation [13].
  • Osteocalcin or bone gamma-glutamic acid-containing protein (GLA protein) was isolated from human bone and used to develop a homologous radioimmunoassay of human osteocalcin [28].
  • Microinjection of remodeling factors resulted in apparent differences in the rate of blastocyst development and in pregnancy initiation rates in both NPL- and PGA-injected embryos, and these differences were dependent on factor concentration and/or the time of injection [17].


  1. Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with antisense oligonucleotides to glutamine synthetase mRNA inhibits glutamine synthetase activity, formation of the poly-L-glutamate/glutamine cell wall structure, and bacterial replication. Harth, G., Zamecnik, P.C., Tang, J.Y., Tabatadze, D., Horwitz, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Transcription of vesicular stomatitis virus activated by pardaxin, a fish toxin that permeabilizes the virion membrane. Pal, R., Barenholz, Y., Wagner, R.R. J. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of polyglutamic acid synthesis by glutamate in Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. Kambourova, M., Tangney, M., Priest, F.G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunologically induced peliosis hepatis in rats. Husztik, E., Lázár, G., Szabó, E. British journal of experimental pathology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. An inhibitor of exported Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase selectively blocks the growth of pathogenic mycobacteria in axenic culture and in human monocytes: extracellular proteins as potential novel drug targets. Harth, G., Horwitz, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Function of pulmonary M2 muscarinic receptors in antigen-challenged guinea pigs is restored by heparin and poly-L-glutamate. Fryer, A.D., Jacoby, D.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleoplasmin cDNA sequence reveals polyglutamic acid tracts and a cluster of sequences homologous to putative nuclear localization signals. Dingwall, C., Dilworth, S.M., Black, S.J., Kearsey, S.E., Cox, L.S., Laskey, R.A. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation from commercial aurintricarboxylic acid of the most effective polymeric inhibitors of von Willebrand factor interaction with platelet glycoprotein Ib. Comparison with other polyanionic and polyaromatic polymers. Weinstein, M., Vosburgh, E., Phillips, M., Turner, N., Chute-Rose, L., Moake, J. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Inhibition of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase by polyanions. Benovic, J.L., Stone, W.C., Caron, M.G., Lefkowitz, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. SREBP-1 dimerization specificity maps to both the helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper domains: use of a dominant negative. Rishi, V., Gal, J., Krylov, D., Fridriksson, J., Boysen, M.S., Mandrup, S., Vinson, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. DNA sequence affects nucleosome ordering on replicating plasmids in transfected COS-1 cells and in vitro. Jeong, S.W., Stein, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. HOXB6 protein is bound to CREB-binding protein and represses globin expression in a DNA binding-dependent, PBX interaction-independent process. Shen, W., Chrobak, D., Krishnan, K., Lawrence, H.J., Largman, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Poly-L-glutamate, an anionic polymer, enhances transgene expression for plasmids delivered by intramuscular injection with in vivo electroporation. Nicol, F., Wong, M., MacLaughlin, F.C., Perrard, J., Wilson, E., Nordstrom, J.L., Smith, L.C. Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Monocyte-mediated damage to Rhizopus oryzae hyphae in vitro. Diamond, R.D., Haudenschild, C.C., Erickson, N.F. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Dilution of reporter gene with stuffer DNA does not alter the transfection efficiency of polyethylenimines. Kichler, A., Leborgne, C., Danos, O. The journal of gene medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of heparin on antigen-induced airway responses and pulmonary leukocyte accumulation in neonatally immunized rabbits. Preuss, J.M., Page, C.P. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Nucleoplasmin facilitates reprogramming and in vivo development of bovine nuclear transfer embryos. Betthauser, J.M., Pfister-Genskow, M., Xu, H., Golueke, P.J., Lacson, J.C., Koppang, R.W., Myers, C., Liu, B., Hoeschele, I., Eilertsen, K.J., Leno, G.H. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of anti-alpha-fetoprotein-adriamycin conjugate on a human hepatoma. Galun, E., Shouval, D., Adler, R., Shahaar, M., Wilchek, M., Hurwitz, E., Sela, M. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Quantitative analyses of electrostatic interactions between NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome P450 enzymes. Voznesensky, A.I., Schenkman, J.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Toroid formation in charge neutralized flexible or semi-flexible biopolymers: potential pathway for assembly of DNA carriers. Tang, M.X., Li, W., Szoka, F.C. The journal of gene medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Polyanions decelerate the kinetics of positively charged gramicidin channels as shown by sensitized photoinactivation. Antonenko, Y.N., Borisenko, V., Melik-Nubarov, N.S., Kotova, E.A., Woolley, G.A. Biophys. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Bone sialoprotein. Ganss, B., Kim, R.H., Sodek, J. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis. Charnas, L.R., Szaro, B.G., Gainer, H. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Binding of gelsolin, a secretory protein, to amyloid beta-protein. Chauhan, V.P., Ray, I., Chauhan, A., Wisniewski, H.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. JEAP, a novel component of tight junctions in exocrine cells. Nishimura, M., Kakizaki, M., Ono, Y., Morimoto, K., Takeuchi, M., Inoue, Y., Imai, T., Takai, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Chitinase-Deficient Bacillus licheniformis Strains Capable of Deproteinization of Shrimp Shell Waste To Obtain Highly Viscous Chitin. Waldeck, J., Daum, G., Bisping, B., Meinhardt, F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Interaction of amyloid beta-protein with anionic phospholipids: possible involvement of Lys28 and C-terminus aliphatic amino acids. Chauhan, A., Ray, I., Chauhan, V.P. Neurochem. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Homologous radioimmunoassay of human osteocalcin. Bouillon, R., Vanderschueren, D., Van Herck, E., Nielsen, H.K., Bex, M., Heyns, W., Van Baelen, H. Clin. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
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