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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Human TLR9 confers responsiveness to bacterial DNA via species-specific CpG motif recognition.

The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family consists of phylogenetically conserved transmembrane proteins, which function as mediators of innate immunity for recognition of pathogen-derived ligands and subsequent cell activation via the Toll/IL-1R signal pathway. Here, we show that human TLR9 (hTLR9) expression in human immune cells correlates with responsiveness to bacterial deoxycytidylate-phosphate-deoxyguanylate (CpG)-DNA. Notably "gain of function" to immunostimulatory CpG-DNA is achieved by expressing TLR9 in human nonresponder cells. Transfection of either human or murine TLR9 conferred responsiveness in a CD14- and MD2-independent manner, yet required species-specific CpG-DNA motifs for initiation of the Toll/IL-1R signal pathway via MyD88. The optimal CpG motif for hTLR9 was GTCGTT, whereas the optimal murine sequence was GACGTT. Overall, these data suggest that hTLR9 conveys CpG-DNA responsiveness to human cells by directly engaging immunostimulating CpG-DNA.[1]


  1. Human TLR9 confers responsiveness to bacterial DNA via species-specific CpG motif recognition. Bauer, S., Kirschning, C.J., Häcker, H., Redecke, V., Hausmann, S., Akira, S., Wagner, H., Lipford, G.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
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