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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The murine genome contains one functional gene and two pseudogenes coding for the 16 kDa proteolipid subunit of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

We cloned the genomic genes encoding the murine 16 kDa subunit (proteolipid, PL16) of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and determined their nucleotide sequences. At least three independent genes were found in the murine genome. One gene consisted of three exons and was largely identical in sequence to that of PL16 cDNA reported previously (Hanada et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 176 (1991) 1062). In the 5'-flanking region of this gene, several possible transcriptional cis-elements were found. TATA and CAAT sequences were not found, which is characteristic for promoters of house-keeping genes. The other two genes identified did not contain introns. One of these genes had an open reading frame that potentially encoded PL16 but contained six amino acid substitutions and a frame-shift mutation that would result in a truncated protein unable to participate in V-ATPase activity. The other gene had the same sequence in the reading frame as that in the cDNA. However, this gene contained a polyA sequence at the same position where polyA is normally added to mRNA. The gene also had 15 bp repetitive sequences near the transcription initiation site and next to the polyA sequence. These observations suggest that this gene may have been generated by the insertion of reverse-transcribed double-stranded cDNA, as is usually observed for pseudogenes. In conclusion, there is a single functional PL16 gene and two pseudogenes in the murine genome. It is unlikely that PL16 isoforms contribute to variation in V-ATPase function.[1]


  1. The murine genome contains one functional gene and two pseudogenes coding for the 16 kDa proteolipid subunit of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Hayami, K., Noumi, T., Inoue, H., Sun-Wada, G., Yoshimizu, T., Kanazawa, H. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
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